Toronto in 1893

City Hall (1899)

  60 Queen Street West
  NE corner of Queen & Bay

Now known as "Old City Hall", it was "New City Hall" when it was built in 1899. It served as such until 1966, and is now a courthouse.

This was actually Toronto's 3rd city hall. The 1st was in the Market Block at St. Lawrence Market North, and the 2nd was in the New Market House (included on this map) at St. Lawrence Market South. The current (4th) city hall is across the street from Old City Hall, in Nathan Philips Square.

Artistic license included this building on the map years before it was completed. Though the tallest structure in Canada at the time, its size on the map is exaggerated for emphasis by the map's authors.

First Parliament site (1797-1824)

Location (former):
  SW corner of Front & Parliament

The Upper Canada (now Ontario) parliament first convened at its former provincial capital in Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake). In 1796, the capital moved here. The first dedicated parliament buildings, called the Palace of Parliament, were completed at this site in 1797. This was then the South-Eastern edge of town.

At the time, John Graves Simcoe (lieutenant governor) selected York (now Toronto) as the new provincial capital to distance it from the US border. This move proved insufficient however, as the buildings were nonetheless destroyed during the War of 1812 with the US.

A new building was constructed on the same site in 1820, but it accidentally burned down in 1824. The 3rd and 4th parliament buildings (included on this map) were built in downtown and Queen's Park, respectively. The latter is still in use today.

Ontario Parliament Building (1832-1900)

Location (former):
  N Front between John & Simcoe

Originally constructed as the 3rd Parliament of Upper Canada in 1832, this building became the 1st Ontario Parliament Building when Upper Canada (then Canada West) became Ontario at Confederation in 1867.

Then in 1893, the Ontario Legislative Building (included on this map) opened at Queen's Park, and this site was abandoned around the time of this map. The building was gradually demolished starting in 1900, and is now the site of Simcoe Place and the CBC.

Ontario Legislative Building (1893)

  111 Wellesley Street West
  SW corner of Wellesley & Queens Park

Though it had been a public park for decades prior, Queen's Park officially opened in 1860, making it one of the city's oldest parks. The former King's College building at the park was occasionally used by the provincial parliament.

In 1893, the provincial government moved from the Ontario Parliament Building (included on this map) downtown to a new building at Queen's Park. The Ontario Legislative Building is the province's 4th parliament building. This building serves as the seat of parliament, housing the legislative assembly. It also contains the lieutenant governor's residence.

The building suffered some damage from a fire in 1909, and was restored and expanded. The Queen's Park grounds contain many monuments, memorials, and plaques documenting the province's history.

Government House (1870-1915)

Location (former):
  SW corner of King & Simcoe

In Canada, a "Government House" is the lieutenant governor's residence. Many in Ontario don't know this because Ontario no longer has one - but it had several!

The 1st was a small residence at Fort York, destroyed during the War of 1812. The 2nd was Elmsley House, destroyed by fire. The 3rd Government House was completed in 1870 on the site of the previous residence.

The house was abandoned in 1912 for a temporary residence at Cumberland House, followed by the 4th house at Chorley Park, that was demolished in 1961. The lieutenant governor now resides in a suite at the Ontario Legislative Building (included on this map).

The 3rd Government House was demolished in 1915, and the site is now home to Roy Thomson Hall.

Fort York (1815)

  250 Fort York Boulevard
  SW corner of Front & Bathurst

The original fort was established by John Graves Simcoe (lieutenant governor) when the settlement now known as Toronto was called York, Ontario was the British province of Upper Canada, and Canada had not yet confederated. Fort York was built to defend the Toronto Harbour. At that time, prior to infilling of the harbour, the fort was on the lakeshore, and before the separation of the Toronto Islands, the harbour had only a single entrance to defend. The fort was destroyed during the War of 1812, and rebuilt by 1815.

In the 1840s, a new fort, later named Stanley Barracks (included on this map), was built to replace the aging old fort. However, the old Fort York continued to be used by the military until the 1930s, when it was converted to a museum and historic site. It contains several of the city's oldest surviving brick buildings.

Stanley Barracks - Officers' Quarters (1841)

  2 Strachan Avenue
  W Strachan N of lakeshore

Q: Why is Fort York sometimes called "Old Fort York"?
A: It's not just because it's old! It's because there is a New Fort York.

The new fort was built in 1841 to replace the aging old Fort York, and was renamed Stanley Barracks in 1893. Residents of the fort occasionally performed drills for exhibition audiences with whom they shared the grounds.

The new fort was demolished in the early 1950s to make more room for Exhibition Place (included on this map). The sole remaining structure is the Officers' Quarters, the largest of the fort's original buildings.

Fun fact: The "Stanley" who the fort was renamed after is the same Lord Frederick Stanley who gave the NHL the Stanley Cup.

Toronto Armories (1894-1963)

Location (former):
  361 University Avenue
  SE corner of Armoury & University

The Toronto Armories were used for military training of both professional and volunteer regiments.

The building was included on this map ahead of its opening in 1894. It was demolished in 1963 to make way for the new Toronto Courthouse, and the facility was replaced by the Moss Park Armoury.

Drill Shed (1877-1899)

Location (former):
  W Jarvis between Front & The Esplanade

This drill shed opened in 1877. It replaced a former shed on Simcoe Street, and was used for military training.

However, its life was short-lived; the shed was demolished in 1899 to make way for the new St. Lawrence Market South building currently on the site. The Toronto Armouries (included on this map) served its function thereafter.

Asylum for the Insane (1850)

  999 Queen Street West
  SW corner of Queen & Shaw

Q: What was CAMH before it was CAMH?
A: Trick question! It was always what it is today!

Originally named the Provincial Lunatic Asylum, the hospital opened in 1850. It was the largest public building in Canada at the time. The hospital was later renamed the Asylum for the Insane.

The facility was later renamed again, to Hospital for the Insane, Ontario Hospital, and finally the Queen Street Mental Health Centre, before the building was demolished in 1976. The site is now part of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH).

Toronto Central Prison (1873-1920)

Location (former):
  SW corner of King & Strachan

The Toronto Central Prison opened in 1873. This was the city's largest prison at the time. Inmates participated in various industrial activities, working to raise funds for the prison.

The premises no longer served as a prison after 1915, and the building was demolished in 1920, except for the prison chapel (included on this map). The site is now a residential area, and includes Liberty Village Park.

Don Jail (1864)

  550 Gerrard Street East
  NW corner of Gerrard & Broadview

The Don Jail (originally Don Gaol) opened in 1864. It included a farm (now Riverdale Park) worked by the inmates. While originally a progressive "reform" institution, it became overcrowded, leading to the addition of an East Wing, that also became overcrowded.

The jail closed in 1977. In 2013, the building was renovated and taken over by the adjacent hospital (included on this map).

Andrew Mercer Reformatory for Women (1880-1969)

Location (former):
  1155 King Street West
  SE corner of King & Fraser

The Andrew Mercer Reformatory for Women opened in 1880. It was unknowingly funded by Mercer after he died without leaving a will. The complex included separate facilities for a women's prison and a girls' refuge.

The institution was closed and demolished in 1969, and the site is now occupied by Lamport Stadium.

Victoria Hospital for Sick Children (1892)

  67 College Street
  SE corner of College & Elizabeth

The Victoria Hospital for Sick Children opened in 1892. The hospital was involved with the development of several major contributions to medicine, including milk pasteurization, baby cereal (Pablum), X-ray imaging, and insulin.

The hospital moved out of the building in 1951 to the current facility on University Avenue, that is now known simply as The Hospital for Sick Children, or SickKids. The original building currently serves as a blood centre.

Toronto General Hospital (1856-1922)

Location (former):
  400 Gerrard Street East
  NW corner of Gerrard & Sumach

What was originally York General Hospital, moved from its previous location downtown, to this new building in 1856. This was the 2nd Toronto General Hospital - Toronto's main hospital facility. A school for nurses was opened at the hospital in 1881 - Canada's second such school. The structure saw multiple additions and expansions over its tenure.

The hospital moved again in 1913, to its current site at the Discovery District. The old building was used by the military for a while, before being demolished in 1922.

House of Providence (1857-1962)

Location (former):
  65 Power Street
  E Power between Queen & King

The House of Providence opened in 1857. It was run by a religious order called the Sisters of St. Joseph, known today for St. Michael's and St. Joseph's Hospitals, and St. Michael's College (included on this map), among others. The charitable institution served as a shelter, orphanage, and care facility.

In 1962, the House of Providence relocated to Scarborough, and the original property was demolished to make way for a Don Valley Parkway ramp.

Isolation Hospital (1860)

  1 Bridgepoint Drive
  NW corner of Gerrard & Broadview

The history of this site began in 1860, with the construction of a homeless shelter called the House of Refuge. Following the smallpox epidemics of the 1870s, the building started to also be used to house patients with infectious diseases. It eventually came to operate as an Isolation Hospital, and was gradually expanded. The original building was demolished in 1894. By the turn of the century, the site was used exclusively as a treatment and teaching centre for infectious diseases.

In 1904, the facility was renamed the Riverdale Isolation Hospital. Starting in the 1910s, the small buildings were replaced by a greatly expanded complex. However, by 1957, infectious diseases were becoming significantly less common. The hospital renamed to just The Riverdale Hospital, and changed its focus to a chronic care and rehabilitation facility. The previous structures were again demolished and replaced anew.

Following a significant redevelopment project in the 21st century, the hospital became Bridgepoint Health. The expanded complex includes the neighbouring Don Jail (included on this map), and still operates as a long-term care and rehabilitation hospital today.

St. Joseph's - Sunnyside Orphanage (1848)

  30 The Queensway
  NW corner of Lake Shore & Sunnyside

This was originally a house built around 1848 for John George Howard (city surveyor) and known as Sunnyside Villa. The Sisters of St. Joseph – a religious order – moved in in 1876 and set up an orphanage. They later purchased the property, and renamed it Sacred Heart, though it was often referred to as St. Joseph's Sunnyside Orphanage. The sisters greatly expanded the building.

The orphanage was converted to a hospital starting in 1921. The original Sunnyside building was demolished in 1945. St. Joseph's Hospital grew to absorb the neighbouring Our Lady of Mercy Hospital also run by the sisters. It later merged with other hospitals founded by the sisters - St. Michael's and the House of Providence (included on this map).

Fun fact: As Sunnyside Villa was one of the first prominent structures in the neighbourhood, the entire area eventually came to be known as Sunnyside. John Howard also owned the land to the West of Sunnyside, now known as High Park.

Toronto Public Library (1855-1949)

Location (former):
  75 Church Street
  NE corner of Adelaide & Church

This building was constructed for the Toronto Mechanics' Institute, and first opened in 1855. The institute had already been operating a library since 1831, and moved it here when they finally moved in in 1861. In 1884, the library was turned over to the city, and became the main branch of the Toronto Public Library. This was the first free reference public library in Canada.

The main branch moved to a new building in 1909 (now the Koffler Centre). This branch closed in 1927. The building was demolished in 1949, and the site is now condos.

Central Fire Station (1886)

  110 Lombard Street
  N Lombard between Church & Jarvis

The Central Fire Station was built in 1886. It was the city fire department's headquarters until 1910. The building's original spire was replaced with a bell tower (as shown in the photo) in 1895.

After it closed in 1970, the fire station building became known as "The Old Fire Hall". It is now a commercial property.

Fun fact: From 1973-1997, the hall hosted The Second City company theatre, a comedy troupe known in Canada for SCTV.

Fire Hall No 3 (1872)

  484 Yonge Street
  W Yonge between Grosvenor & Grenville

Fire Hall No 3 opened in 1872. It featured a clock tower.

The fire station moved around the corner to Grosvenor Street in 1929, and the original building became a retail space. Most of the building, apart from the clock tower, was demolished in 1950. It was replaced by St. Charles Tavern, one of the city's most prominent gay bars (as shown in the photo). In 2018, the clock tower was moved less than 1m North of its original position. It was restored and incorporated into the Halo Residences condominium tower. A glass etching depicting the original fire station fronts the new building.

Fire Hall No 4 (1859)

  70 Berkeley Street
  SW corner of Berkeley and Adelaide

Fire Hall No 4 was originally built in 1859 in the form shown below. In 1872, a hose tower was added.

The building, apart from the tower, was replaced in 1905, as shown on the right. The top portion of the tower was removed in 1952. The building continued to be used as a fire station until 1970. It is now the Alumnae Theatre.

Fire Hall No 6 (1867-1954)

Location (former):
  315 Queen Street West
  S Queen between Peter & John

Although there had been a fire station here prior, this building was actually constructed for Police Station No 3 around 1867. After the police station moved to St. Andrew's Market (included on this map), the building was taken over by the Toronto Fire Department again around 1876, to become Fire Hall No 6. At this point, a clock tower was added. Towers were typically added to fire stations for hanging firehoses to dry, and several fire stations in Toronto featured clocks on their towers.

The fire station closed in 1936, and the building was demolished in 1954. The location is now a retail space.

Fire Hall No 8 (1878)

  132 Bellevue Avenue
  SW corner of College & Bellevue

This is Toronto's oldest active fire station, completed 1878. Fire Hall No 8 features an 8-storey clock tower with an observation deck. The station was expanded multiple times in its history.

Fire Hall No 8 received the city's first motorized fire engine in 1911. The station was partially rebuilt in 1973 following a fire that gutted the building. After amalgamation, the hall is now Toronto Fire Station #315.

Fire Hall No 9 (1878)

  16 Ossington Avenue
  W Ossington between Humbert & Queen

In the city's early history, fire services were provided largely by volunteer fire companies. Starting in 1874, the newly established Toronto Fire Department began taking over service. It also went on a construction spree, building new fire halls. In 1878 alone, 3 were built (No 7, 8, 9).

Fire Hall No 9 is the oldest surviving fire station building in Toronto. It was active until 1968, after which point the top portion of the tower was removed. The building is now part of Unity Health Network, and has been restored.

4th General Post Office (1834)

  260 Adelaide Street East
  N Adelaide between George & Frederick

This post office opened just as the Town of York changed its name to the City of Toronto in 1834 - it was briefly York's 4th General Post Office, and then Toronto's 1st. It served until 1839.

In the 1870s, the building was merged with its 2 adjacent neighbours, and a 4th storey was added. Since then, it has hosted various tenants.

The building was later restored, and reopened as the First Post Office Museum in 1983. It is Canada's oldest post office building, and functioning post office outlet.

7th General Post Office (1853)

  10 Toronto Street
  W Toronto between Adelaide & King

The 1st general post office building opened in 1815 when Toronto was still called York. The 2nd (1828-1830) and 3rd (1830-1833) were quickly outgrown by the expanding town. The 4th General Post Office (1834-1839) opened just before York renamed to Toronto. The 5th (1839-1845) was located where the historic Bank of Montreal (now Hockey Hall of Fame) building is today. The 6th (1845-1853) was also quickly outgrown.

The 7th General Post Office (now Toronto Street Post Office) opened in 1853, and served as a post office until 1873. It remained in government hands until 1937, after which time it was used by the Bank of Canada, and other financial institutions. It is 1 of only 2 of the city's general post office buildings that still stand today.

The 8th General Post Office (1874-1937) was the last such building in Toronto. 3 of the 8 buildings are indicated on this map (4th, 7th, 8th).

Fun fact: 10 Toronto Street was headquarters of Argus Corporation between 1959-2008, where media mogul and convicted felon Conrad Black was president.

8th General Post Office (1874-1958)

Location (former):
  38-42 Adelaide Street East
  NE corner of Toronto & Adelaide

The post office was the dominant social media platform of its time, and growing at a rapid pace. The city's 7th Post Office was located just down the street (indicated on this map) in a small building that still stands today. In comparison, the 8th General Post Office was a major upgrade. It was completed in 1874, and expanded multiple times in its history. Post office boxes, and automobile delivery, among others, were pioneered in this building.

Some other government departments later shared the building. It was demolished in 1958, and replaced with the Mackenzie Building that remains there today.

Custom House (1876-1919)

Location (former):
  SW corner of Front & Yonge

This was the city's 7th Customs House. It was built on the site of the previous customs house, and opened in 1876. The customs house handled import/export paperwork, customs, and duties, for goods shipped through the city's ports.

After narrowly escaping the Great Fire of 1904, the building was demolished in 1919. The Dominion Public Building that now occupies the site, took over its function as the city's next customs house.

University of Toronto - St. George campus (1827)

  N College between Spadina & University

The first post-secondary school in Upper Canada (now Ontario), King's College was founded in 1827 by John Strachan (bishop). Originally a religious institution, the college became secular in 1850, and renamed the University of Toronto.

Starting with University College (included on this map), the University of Toronto eventually federated with several other Toronto schools, including Knox College, Wycliffe College, Victoria University, St. Michael's College, and Trinity College (included on this map). It is now the largest university in Canada.

University College (1859)

  15 King's College Circle
  S Hoskin between St. George & Queens Park

Created in 1853, University College was the founding member college of the collegiate system of the University of Toronto. The building was completed in 1859. It suffered a major fire in 1890 and was restored.

The building was renovated in modern times. University College is now one of 11 colleges that constitute the university.

Victoria University (1892)

  73 Queens Park
  SE corner of Charles & Queens Park

This school was originally formed in Cobourg as the Upper Canada Academy. Founded by Egerton Ryerson (minister), it later renamed to Victoria College, and later still became Victoria University.

In 1890, Victoria University federated with the University of Toronto. It then moved to this new building on the University of Toronto campus in 1892. The school complex expanded over the years, and still operates today.

St. Michael's College (1856)

  50 St. Joseph Street
  NW corner of St. Joseph & Bay

St. Michael's College opened in 1856. The college campus included St. Basil's Church (included on this map), and St. Michael's College School (high school). The main Cloverhill Wing building was extended multiple times in its history.

St. Michael's became a federated college of the University of Toronto in 1910. The University of St. Michael's College campus subsequently saw multiple expansions.

The extensions to the original building were demolished, partly in 1922 to make way for construction of Bay Street, and the rest in the late 1960s. The original building was restored in 1996, and renamed Odette Hall. It is the oldest continuously active building on the University of Toronto campus.

Protestant Episcopal Divinity School (1881-1897)

Location (former):
  N College between St. George & Queens Park

The Protestant Episcopal Divinity School first met at the schoolhouse of St. James Cathedral. This short-lived building was the school's first own home - the school moved in in 1881. The building was named Wycliffe College, and the school renamed accordingly.

In 1889, Wycliffe College federated with the University of Toronto. In 1891, the school moved again, to its current location on Hoskin Avenue (indicated on this map). The building was demolised sometime around 1897. The Lassonde Mining and Haultain Buildings now occupy the site.

Wycliffe College (1891)

  5 Hoskin Avenue
  S Hoskin between St. George & Queens Park

Wycliffe College is a theological school. It federated with the University of Toronto in 1889. The school then moved from the previous location (included on this map) on the South end of campus to a building around this location in 1891. The premises were expanded multiple times over the 20th century.

Wycliffe College is also independently federated with the Toronto School of Theology, the largest such consortium for theological education in Canada. Founding members of the consortium include several University of Toronto colleges: Wycliffe College, Knox College, St. Michael's College, and Trinity College (included on this map).

Knox College (1875)

  1 Spadina Crescent
  Spadina between College & Willcocks

Knox College moved from its former home near Bay Street to this location in 1875. This is a theological college. It federated with the University of Toronto in 1889.

Knox College moved out of the building in 1914, at the beginning of WWI, after which it was used by the military. The college moved to its current premises on the University of Toronto campus. Today, the building is back in the hands of the university, and is now known as the Daniels Building. A significant renovation, restoration, and expansion was completed in 2017.

The Little Red Skulehouse (1878-1966)

Location (former):
  N College between St. George & Queens Park

The School of Practical Science building, nicknamed The Little Red Skulehouse, was completed in 1878. This was the headquarters of the engineering faculty. It was expanded in 1889. Originally operating independently, the school formally merged into the University of Toronto in 1906 as the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering.

The faculty moved to the new Galbraith Building, and Sandford Fleming Building, when they were built. The building was then closed in 1966, and torn down.

University Library (1892)

  9 King's College Circle
  SE corner of Wellesley & King's College Circle

Following a fire at University College (included on this map), the library was moved to a new building. Opened in 1892, the University Library was the university of Toronto's main library until 1973, when Robarts Library opened. The building was expanded multiple times throughout its history.

The University Library is now Gerstein Science Information Centre, and is part of the Sigmund Samuel Library building. It still houses the Science and Medicine Library collection - the largest in Canada - today.

Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory (1855)

Location (moved):
  N College between St. George & Queens Park

This building, completed in 1855, replaced a wooden observatory on the same site. The (2nd) Toronto Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory was a government-run facility. It originally contained both a magnetic observatory and a meteorology service. A telescope for astronomical observations was added in 1881.

As nearby use of electricity and metal made magnetic measurements difficult in the growing city, the magnetic observatory moved to Agincourt in 1898. The meteorology service moved to a newer building on the North end of the University of Toronto campus in 1907, to reduce the impact of nearby construction. Instead of demolishing the now disused observatory, it was moved and rebuilt at its current location on campus in 1908, and renamed the Louis B. Stewart Observatory. It is currently used as a student administrative building. The observatory's former location now has the Meridian of Toronto marker that was set by the observatory.

Stewart Building (1894)

  149 College Street
  S College between McCaul & University

Just prior to the time of this map, this site was host to Sleepy Hollow, the home of John Beverley Robinson (mayor, lieutenant governor). Robinson turned over his property to provide a site for construction. The Stewart Building was originally built for the Toronto Athletic Club in 1894, and included on this map ahead of its completion.

Robinson was club founder and president when the club moved into the building from their former office. The facilities included an indoor pool, gymnasium, and billiards room.

Robinson died 2 years after the move, and as a result, the club faced financial difficulties soon after. The building was sold off, and the club was closed in 1899. The Stewart Building has been renovated numerous times over its history. It is now used by the University of Toronto.

McMaster Hall (1881)

  273 Bloor Street West
  S Bloor between St. George & Queens Park

The Toronto Baptist College was founded by William McMaster (senator). The college's home, McMaster Hall, opened in 1881. In 1887, it merged to become McMaster University. The premises were expanded in 1901 with an addition called Castle Memorial Hall.

McMaster University moved to Hamilton in 1930, and later became a non-demoninational institution. The building is now renamed Ihnatowycz Hall, and has housed the Royal Conservatory of Music since 1962.

Trinity College (1852-1956)

Location (former):
  790 Queen Street West
  N Queen between Crawford & Gore Vale

John Strachan (bishop) founded King's College, but against his objections, the publicly-funded school had secularized, and was renamed the University of Toronto. Strachan then founded Trinity College as a privately-funded religious alternative, that opened in 1852.

Though initially at odds with each other, the schools eventually merged in 1904. Trinity College moved to its current location on the University of Toronto campus in 1925. The original building was torn down in 1956, and the former campus is now Trinity Bellwoods Park.

Upper Canada College - Russell Square campus (1831-1902)

Location (former):
  NW corner of King & Simcoe

The Upper Canada College was founded by John Colborne (aka Lord Seaton) in 1829. The school moved from a temporary location in the Royal Grammar School at College Square to the Russell Square campus in 1831. The buildings were renovated and upgraded multiple times throughout its history.

In 1891, the college moved again, to its current location (included on this map) at Deer Park, so the Russell Square campus was already abandoned by the time of this map.

The campus lands were subdivided and sold off starting in 1902. They are now home to the Royal Alexandra and Princess of Wales Theatres.

Upper Canada College - Deer Park campus (1891)

  200 Lonsdale Road
  NE corner of Lonsdale & Forest Hill

In 1891, the Upper Canada College moved from its previous campus (included on this map) at Russell Square, to its current location at the Deer Park campus.

The building was replaced in 1959 by the current structure, that bears some resemblance to the original.

Toronto Normal School (1852-1958)

Location (former):
  N Gould between Victoria & Church

Teacher's Colleges used to be called "Normal Schools". Founded by Egerton Ryerson (minister), the Toronto Normal School opened in 1852 at St. James Square.

The building came to host various education-related institutions over the years, including the provincial Department of Education. Canada's first publicly funded museum, the Museum of Natural History and Fine Arts, was established here in 1857, later becoming the Royal Ontario Museum. The Ontario Society of Artists was headquartered at the building, and operated an art school on St. James Square that later became the Ontario College of Art & Design (OCAD). The square also hosted argicultural laboratories that later evolved into the University of Guelph. The Normal School itself evolved into the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE).

The Normal School moved out of the square in 1941. In 1948, the site was taken over by the Ryerson Institute of Technology. The buildings on the square were demolished starting in 1958. The Ryerson Institute is now Toronto Metropolitan University. Part of the facade of the original building is preserved on campus (as shown in the photo).

Jarvis Collegiate Institute (1871-1928)

Location (former):
  361 Jarvis Street
  E Jarvis between Carlton & Gerrard

Toronto's first public school was established in 1807. Back then, high schools were called grammar schools, and the new school was named the Home District Grammar School. The school moved multiple times since then as it grew. It was also renamed multiple times, to Royal Grammar School, Toronto High School, and Toronto Collegiate Institute. In 1871, the school moved to this location. The building was expanded mutltiple times over its history.

After Parkdale was annexed in 1889, this was no longer Toronto's only public high school, and it was renamed again to its current name: Jarvis Collegiate Institute.

In 1924, Jarvis Collegiate moved one last time to its current location up the street at Wellesley. The former school building was demolished in 1928, and the grounds are now part of Allan Gardens (included on this map).

De La Salle College (1871)

  258 Adelaide Street East
  N Adelaide between George & Frederick

This school was originally named the Christian Brothers Commercial Academy. It was a private Catholic boys school. The school moved to its newly built home here in 1871, and renamed De La Salle Institute. In 1880, it renamed again, to De La Salle College.

The building was constructed between the Bank of Upper Canada and 4th General Post Office buildings (included on this map). During the 1870s, both of these neighbours were purchased by the school, expanded, and merged together into a 3-building complex.

De La Salle moved out of the buildings in 1913. As of 1931, the school is based at Oaklands (included on this map) in Deer Park. The 3-building complex still stands today, and is used as commercial space.

Wykeham Hall (1841-1928)

Location (former):
  35 College Street
  S College between Bay & Yonge

This was originally a mansion called Wickham Lodge, the residence of James Buchanan Macaulay (chief justice), built in the early 1840s. It was later renamed Wykeham Hall. In 1870, the Bishop Strachan School moved in from Bishop's Palace (included on this map) downtown, after making extensive renovations. This was a girls school.

The school moved to its current location at Forest Hill South in 1915. The structure was torn down in 1928 to make way for (Eaton's) College Park, that currently occupies the site.

Exhibition Place (1878)

  N of lakeshore between Dufferin & Strachan

The Provincial Agricultural Fair moved from King & Shaw to the current exhibition site, along with the Crystal Palace (included on this map), in 1878. It then became the Toronto Industrial Exhibition. The Exhibition Place grounds gradually expanded over the years.

In 1912, the exhibition was renamed the Canadian National Exhibition (CNE), and became the world's largest annual fair. It eventually took over the grounds of the Stanley Barracks (included on this map) military site.

Aside from the annual exhibition - still the largest in Canada - the grounds now host year-round activities, particularly sports venues, concerts, and other events.

Crystal Palace (1878-1906)

Location (former):
  E Dufferin N of lakeshore

The original Palace of Industry building was modelled after the Crystal Palace in England, and built near King & Shaw Streets. In 1878, it was disassembled, moved, and partially reconstructed on the exhibition grounds, to become the 2nd Crystal Palace. This was the main building of the first Industrial Exhibition (later renamed the CNE).

The building was later renamed the Transportation Building, and was destroyed by fire in 1906. It was replaced by the Horticulture Building.

Scadding Cabin (1794)

  25 British Columbia Road
  N of lakeshore between Dufferin & Strachan

The Scadding Cabin is the oldest surviving building in Toronto, and the only one from the 18th century on this map! It was originally built in 1794 for John Scadding, a clerk to the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada (now Ontario). The Cabin was originally located East of the Don River.

In 1879, the cabin was donated to York Pioneers, the oldest historical society in the province. John is the father of Henry Scadding, clergyman of the Church of the Holy Trinity (included on this map), and owner of the Henry Scadding House (indicated on this map). Henry was also a well-regarded Toronto historian, and founder of the York Pioneers.

The York Pioneers moved the cabin to the Exhibition Place grounds for the event's inaugural year. The cabin remains there today, still operated by the York Pioneers as a museum.

Fort Rouillé Monument (1887)

  1 Yukon Place
  N of lakeshore between Dufferin & Strachan

French fur traders arrived in the Toronto area in the early 17th century. A small trading post called Fort Douville was built on the East side of the Humber River at Baby Point (included on this map) in the early 18th century, but was soon abandoned.

Another trading post called Fort Portneuf was built in 1750 near the mouth of the Humber River, and was so successful that an upgrade was soon needed. In 1751, a third and final post, Fort Rouillé, was constructed East of the mouth of the river, larger than its predecessor.

The new fort was also short-lived. In 1759, during the ensuing French Indian War, the French destroyed their own fort to prevent it from being captured by the British, and fled the region.

By the time the Exhibition Place (included on this map) grounds were established in 1878, the old Fort Rouillé's ruins were but a mound of earth, and a stone cairn was added to mark them. In 1887, the Fort Rouillé Monument was installed beside the cairn. Both the cairn and monument still stand today at Exhibition Place.

Fun fact: Both Fort Portneuf and Fort Rouillé were more commonly known as Fort Toronto, from which the city eventually inherited its name.

Cathedral Church of St. James (1853)

  106 King Street East
  NE corner of King & Church

The 1st St. James Church was built here in 1807. After its predecessor burned down in the Cathedral Fire of 1849, the Cathedral Church of St. James became the 4th church on this site. This Anglican church first opened for service in 1853.

However, the cathedral's hallmark spire was not constructed until 1874. This made it the tallest structure in Canada until 1899, when the clock tower on Old City Hall (included on this map) was completed. Nonetheless, its size on the map is exaggerated for emphasis by the map's authors.

St. Michael's Cathedral Basilica (1848)

  57-65 Bond Street
  NE corner of Shuter & Bond

St. Michael's Cathedral Basilica is a Roman Catholic church completed in 1848. It was built to accommodate the inflow of Irish immigrants that was already straining the pre-existing St. Paul's Basilica (included on this map). The congregation then quickly grew from the increased immigration that resulted from the Irish potato famine.

St. Michael's is one of the oldest surviving churches in the city, and the oldest Catholic church. The premises were the first home of St. Michael's College (included on this map) before it moved to its current location near the University of Toronto, and the first home of St. Michael's College School.

St. Michael's Cathedral was renovated multiple times in its early history, including the adjoining Bishop's Palace building, completion of the tower and spire in 1867, and addition of St. John's Chapel in 1891. It has also been restored in modern times.

St. Mary's Church (1889)

  130 Bathurst Street
  NW corner of Adelaide & Bathurst

McDonell Square was originally used as an emergency cemetery for cholera victims in the 1830s. St. Mary's Church, opened 1889, is the 3rd church on the site. This is a Roman Catholic church.

The spire was not completed until 1905 (as shown in the photo). McDonell Square was renamed Portugal Square in 1960. The square also contains a rectory, convent, and school associated with the church.

St. George the Martyr Anglican Church (1845)

  30 Stephanie Street
  NE corner of Stephanie & John

St. George the Martyr Anglican Church opened in 1845. While its popularity grew up to the 1890s, membership started to decline at the turn of the century. In 1909, St. Margaret's Church (included on this map) was merged into St. George.

In 1949, the spire was damaged by gale force winds and removed. Then, in 1955, a fire destroyed the church, apart from the bell tower. The church was never restored, and instead, the parish hall, originally built 1857, was renovated and used in its place. The church is now renamed St. George by the Grange, and hosts a new congregation from St. Paul's Church (indicated on this map).

St. Andrew's Church (1876)

  73 Simcoe Street
  SE corner of King & Simcoe

The Presbytarian congregation moved from their previous building at Church & Adelaide to this location in 1876. The new St. Andrew's Church building was not popular with everyone however, and a splinter group moved to St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church (included on this map) instead. While the other church became known as "Old St. Andrew's", this building hosted "New St. Andrew's".

In 1925, while most Prebytarian churches in Canada merged into the United Church, St. Andrew's became notable for opposing union. It remains an independent congregation today. The building has undergone renovations in modern times, and still stands among the surrounding downtown skyscrapers.

Bathurst Street Wesleyan Methodist Church (1888)

  736 Bathurst Street
  SW corner of Lennox & Bathurst

Though not clearly indicated on the map, here would have been the Bathurst Street Wesleyan Methodist Church. This building replaced a previous church on the same site in 1888.

The congregation joined the United Church in 1925. In 1985, a dwindling congregation led the Bathurst Street United Church to move to nearby Trinity-St. Paul's United Church (included on this map). The building is now the Randolph Theatre.

St. Paul's Basilica (1889)

  83 Power Street
  SE corner of Queen & Power

The first Roman Catholic church in the city was built on this site in 1824. It was established by James Baby (inspector general).

Due to the growing congregation, the church was replaced in 1889 by the larger St. Paul's Basilica that stands today. The bell tower was added in 1905, as shown in the photo.

Knox Church (1847-1906)

Location (former):
  17 Queen Street West
  S Queen between Bay & Yonge

Knox Church was built in 1847, after the old church on the site was destroyed by fire. Knox Church was a Presbytarian church affiliated with Knox College (included on this map). The church was again severely damaged by fire in 1895, losing its steeple (as shown in the photo).

The building was later sold and abandoned, and subsequently demolished in 1906. The premises were taken over by the neighbouring Robert Simpson Company (included on this map) department store (now Hudson's Bay), that currently occupies the site. The congregation moved to its current location by the University of Toronto campus in 1909.

Fun fact: Knox Church still owns the land, and receives rent from Hudson's Bay.

Metropolitan Wesleyan Methodist Church (1872)

  56 Queen Street East
  NW corner of Queen & Church

In 1872, the Methodist church moved to this location from a smaller facility a couple of blocks South.

In 1925, a significant historical event occurred in which several protestant denominations, including a number of churches on this map, merged to form the United Church of Canada. Consequently that year, the Metropolitan Wesleyan Methodist Church became Metropolitan United.

Much of the building, apart from the tower and spire, was badly damaged by fire in 1928 and rebuilt. The newly refurbished building also had Canada's largest pipe organ installed.

Elm Street Methodist Church (1862-1954)

Location (former):
  42 Elm Street
  N Elm between Bay & Yonge

After the previous church was destroyed by fire, the Elm Street Methodist Church was erected on the same site in 1862. Its popularity lead to it being enlarged in 1877 to the form seen in the photo.

The congregation was merged with the Metropolitan Methodist Church (included on this map) in 1922. The church was demolished around 1954. Its former premises are now part of the Minto Plaza.

Beverley Street Baptist Church (1886)

  72 Beverly Street
  NW corner of Beverley and Sullivan

There are several surviving 19th-century baptist church buildings on this map, including the Jarvis, College, Walmer, Ossington, and Beverley Street Baptist Church. These churches were all offshoots of the original Bond Street Baptist Church, on the site of present-day St. Michael's Hospital (included on this map).

The Beverly Street church opened in 1886. The area later became part of Chinatown. By 1972, the church was taken over by Chinese worshippers, and renamed the Toronto Chinese Baptist Church.

Zion Congregational Church (1883)

  88 College Street
  NW corner of College & Elizabeth

The congregation moved from downtown into this Zion Congregational Church in 1883. The congregation disbanded in 1910, and the church amalgamated with the United Church in 1925. The church building is now the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics.

Erskine Presbyterian Church (1878-1948)

Location (former):
  162 Elm Street
  NW corner of Elm & Simcoe

The Erskine Presbyterian Church was built in 1878. It was rebuilt in 1884 after a fire destroyed much of the original building.

The church was later renamed Church of the Christian Brotherhood. The premises were vacated in 1948, and demolished to make way for the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital that currently occupies the site.

The congregation eventually moved to Willowdale, but was closed soon after due to declining membership.

St. Margaret's Anglican Church (1890)

  161 Spadina Avenue
  E Spadina between Queen & Richmond

This was St. Margaret's Anglican Church. This short-lived church opened in 1890, and closed in 1909, after merging with St. George Church (included on this map). The building was converted to a factory in 1911. It is now used as retail space.

Little Trinity Anglican Church (1844)

  425 King Street East
  SW corner of King & Trinity

Opened in 1844, the Little Trinity Anglican Church is the oldest surviving church building in Toronto. It was built as a lower-cost alternative to the only other Anglican church in town - St. James Church (included on this map) - and serviced many local factory workers. Over the years, a rectory was added, the church was enlarged, and it was damaged by fire and restored.

Church of the Ascension (1877-1933)

Location (former):
  137 Richmond Street West
  S Richmond between Simcoe & York

The Church of the Ascension was built in 1877, as a "competitor" to nearby St. George Church (included on this map). A separate building behind the church housed a Sunday school.

The declining congregation moved out of the church in the 1920s to a nearby facility, and the building was later rented out. It was finally sold and demolished around 1933. The site now contains the Hilton Hotel.

Board of Trade (1892-1958)

Location (former):
  2-8 Front Street East
  NE corner of Front & Yonge

The Toronto Board of Trade Building was completed in 1892, and served as the organization's headquarters.

The Board of Trade moved out of the building in 1914, and it was later taken over by the TTC. The building was demolished in 1958, after which it became a parking lot. Today, the site is occupied by an office building.

Osgoode Hall (1832)

  130 Queen Street West
  NE corner of Queen & University

Osgoode Hall was completed in 1832 - when Toronto was still called York! It originally served as the home of the Law Society of Upper Canada (now Ontario), the regulatory body of lawyers in the province.

The building was expanded and refurbished multiple times throughout its long history. It was briefly used as a military barracks. Starting in 1846, it has been used to house the province's Superior Court of Justice. A law school was later established at the hall as well, that effectively got its name from the building: Osgoode Hall Law School. This was the province's only law school at the time.

The law school moved out of the building to the York University campus in 1968. However, Osgoode Hall remains the home of the Law Society to this day, and still hosts the Superior Court and the Ontario Court of Appeals.

St. Joseph's Convent (1863-1962)

Location (former):
  89 Wellesley Street West
  S Wellesley between Queens Park & Bay

The Sisters of St. Joseph – a religious order – moved from Corktown into these premises in 1863. St. Joseph's Convent was both a school and a chapel, and served as the motherhouse for the sisters. The facilities expanded over the years to the form shown in the photo.

The college moved to its current location across the street in 1927. The convent moved to Willowdale in 1960 as the sisters' new motherhouse. The building was demolished shortly thereafter. The location is now Ontario Ministry buildings.

Loretto Abbey (1837-1961)

Location (former):
  403-417 Wellington Street West
  S Wellington between Portland & Spadina

This building started out as a mansion, originally built for Robert Sympson Jameson (attorney general) in 1837. The estate was later renamed Lyndhurst and expanded in the 1850s. Then the Loreto Sisters – a religious order – further expanded the former mansion and moved in in 1868. It was renamed the Loretto Abbey, and served as a girls school.

The sisters moved out in 1928 to their current home in Hogg's Hollow. The building then became a seminary until it was demolished in 1961. The location is now part of the Wellington Place residential neighbourhood.

Mount Pleasant Cemetery (1876)

  375 Mount Pleasant Road
  S Merton between Yonge & Bayview

Mount Pleasant Cemetery is a non-denominational burying ground. Although it opened in 1876, it contains many graves that were moved from the much earlier Potter's Field cemetery that closed in 1855.

At over 200 acres, Mount Pleasant is by far the largest cemetery on this map. Mt. Pleasant Road is named after it, and the Toronto Belt Line passes through it. Originally located on the outskirts of the city, it is now in the city centre. The cemetery is part of the Mount Pleasant Group of cemeteries that includes the Toronto Necropolis (included on this map).

St. James Cemetery (1844)

  635 Parliament Street
  E Parliament between Bloor & Wellesley

The Cathedral Church of St. James (included on this map) originally had its own burial ground around the church, established 1797. It soon ran out of room, and accordingly St. James Cemetery was opened in 1844. This was originally an Anglican cemetery for the church. The Chapel of St. James-the-Less (shown in the photo) was added in 1861.

St. James Cemetery later became non-denominational, and is now the oldest operating cemetery in the city.

Toronto Necropolis (1850)

  200 Winchester Street
  NE corner of Winchester & Sumach

When the original town of York was established, there were no cemeteries available for residents who were not Anglican or Catholic. The first non-denominational cemetery, York General Burying Ground, better known as Potter's Field, was set up in Yorkville in 1826. A second burial ground, Toronto Necropolis, was opened in 1850 on the East side of Toronto. As the city quickly grew around Potter's Field, the organization that operated it, now known as Mount Pleasant Group, bought the Necropolis in 1855. Potter's Field was closed, and many of the bodies were transferred to the Necropolis. The chapel (shown in the photo) was added in 1872.

Mount Pleasant Cemetery, also operated by the Mount Pleasant Group, opened in 1876, and the remaining bodies from Potter's Field were moved there. After 1881, Potter's Field became available for redevelopment. Mount Pleasant Group now operates 10 cemeteries in the city, with the Toronto Necropolis the oldest active (originally) non-denominational cemetery in the city.

Victoria Square (1794)

  10 Niagara Street
  SW corner of Wellington & Portland

Victoria Square was Toronto's first cemetery. It was established along with Fort York (included on this map) as a military burial ground, and first opened in 1794. A number of victims of the War of 1812 were buried here. The cemetery closed in 1863, and largely neglected. In the mid-1880s, the square was converted to a park to help preserve it.

A War of 1812 memorial was added to the park in 1902 (as shown in the photo). The park has been renovated in modern times, and is now known as Victoria Memorial Square. A few surviving gravestones still stand.

Strachan Avenue Military Burying Ground (1863)

  250 Fort York Boulevard
  E Strachan between Wellington & lakeshore

After the first military cemetery at Victoria Square (included on this map) closed in 1863, military burials were briefly conducted at the future Exhibition Place grounds. However, this location proved unsuitable, and the bodies were transferred to the Strachan Avenue Military Burying Ground, opened the same year.

The cemetery closed in 1911, and was left neglected. It was restored in 1922, and is now part of the Fort York National Historic Site.

Pape Avenue Cemetery (1849)

  311 Pape Avenue
  SE corner of Gerrard & Pape

Established in 1849, the Toronto Hebrew Congregation was the first Jewish institution in Toronto. The congregation founded the Pape Avenue Cemetery in the same year to serve the fledgling community. The congregation became Holy Blossom (indicated on this map) in 1856.

The cemetery closed in the 1930s, and can only by visited by appointment now. Holy Blossom continues to run it today.

Government Breakwater (1882-192?)

Built in 1882, the Government Breakwater stretched near where Cherry Street is today, from the Keating Channel (in planning stages at the time of this map) to Fisherman's Island (now Cherry Beach). This was one of the first steps toward the creation of the Port Lands that replaced Ashbridge Marsh.

The breakwater was infilled during the development of the Port Lands in the late 1920s. However, it was recently unearthed during excavations for a restoration project, as shown in the photo.

Humber River

The Toronto Carrying-Place Trail was a trade route that ran along the East side of the Humber River. It connected Lake Ontario to Lake Simcoe over land. Used by the indigenous Wendat (aka Huron) people in the 14th and 15th centuries, it was likely established much earlier.

French fur traders used the trail extensively for trade with the indigenous peoples starting in the 17th century. However, people and goods were not the only things to travel down the trail.

The trail led to the Mnjikaning Fish Weirs, called tkaronto by the Mohawk. The French accordingly referred to the Carrying-Place Trail as Passage de Taronto, and the Humber was called Rivière Taronto. This eventually led to the two French trading posts established near the mouth of the river being named Fort Toronto (aka Fort Portneuf and Fort Rouillé, see monument included on this map).

In 1834, the Town of York was renamed Toronto, a name inherited from the way tkaronto travelled down the trail.

Garrison Creek

There used to be a ravine here called Garrison Creek. Parts of the ravine were rich in mineral deposits, around which industry formed. By 1884, the creek was heavily polluted, and the city had decided to convert it into a brick storm sewer. The ravine was gradually infilled, and the creek was buried accordingly, including several bridges. Although it disappeared completely underground in the mid-20th century, at the time of this map, much of Garrison Creek was still above ground and visible.

Despite this, the creek is not indicated on this map, but its main course can be traced, as is the case today, by following adjacent geographical features. The Christie Pits (included on this map) were originally a sand and gravel quarry along the ravine. From there, the creek headed South to this location (now Bickford Park), that was a mine of clay for brick. From here, the creek swept West towards a region near Ossington (now Fred Hamilton Playground) that appears conspicuously empty on the map. It then curves back into the Trinity College (included on this map) campus (now Trinity Bellwoods Park). There is a large depression there today (known as the "dog bowl") marking the creek's former path. From there, the course of the stream can be inferred from the parallel curves of Walnut and Niagara Streets that interrupt the street grid system. Stanley Park is there today. The river then swept past the East side of Fort York (included on this map) and Garrison Common, for which the waterway was named. When the fort was established, Garrison Creek made a natural defensive palisade structure. The curve of Bathurst Street just ahead of the lakeshore is the final sign of the former creek visible on this map, before it drained into the lake beside Queen's Wharf.

High Park (1876)

  N The Queensway between Ellis & Parkside

This was originally the estate of John George Howard (city surveyor). Howard and his wife deeded their property to the city on condition that it be designated a public park, called High Park. The city accepted, and the park opened to the public in 1876.

At the time, the park was on the remote edge of town, with access limited to boat and rail. The city added public access roads soon after the park opened. Additional properties were purchased and added to the park grounds over time, such that less than half of the modern park was originally from the Howards. This large park close to the city centre contains many amenities, facilities, and other points of interest.

Allan Gardens (1860)

  160 Gerrard Street East
  N Gerrard between Jarvis & Sherbourne

George William Allan (mayor) gifted land to the Toronto Horticultural Society on condition that it be maintained as a public garden. Allan was president of the society at the time. Opened to the public in 1860, Allan Gardens is one of the oldest parks in the city. The gardens initially contained an open-air pavilion that was replaced in 1879 by an enclosed horticultural pavilion.

The enclosed pavilion burned down in 1902, and was replaced with the current Palm House in 1910. There was also a fountain in front of the pavilion that survived the fire but has since been removed. The new conservatory was expanded multiple times, as were the garden grounds.

Original Town of York (1793)

  N Front between George & Berkeley

The Toronto area lands (York County and York Region) were sold to the British in 1787, as part of the Toronto Purchase agreement. The province of Upper Canada (now Ontario) was established in 1791. In 1793, John Graves Simcoe (lieutenant governor) founded the original Town of York. The province's capital then moved from Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake) to York in 1796.

The settlement originally constituted 10 blocks between Adelaide & George, and Front & Berkeley streets. This initial grid was shortly extended in each direction. However, the town's centre eventually moved Northwest to Queen & Yonge streets.

The town greatly expanded over time. It was renamed the City of Toronto in 1834. The original blocks are now part of Old Town.

The Ward (1820-1960)

Location (former):
  N Queen between University & Yonge

James Macaulay (Chief Medical Officer, Justice of the Peace) began dividing up his lot for houses around 1820. In his honour, the neighbourhood was named Macaulaytown. When York was incorporated into Toronto in 1834, the town was absorbed and renamed St. John's Ward.

Inexpensive housing led to many waves of immigrants settling here. The neighbourhood became a slum, and referred to simply as The Ward. The Ward was a first stop for many immigrants into the city, until they established themselves and moved out. Waves of immigration included black fugitive slaves, Irish famine exodus, Europeans fleeing revolutions, Jewish anti-semitism survivors, Italians escaping depression, and Chinese workers. It was the city's first Jewish quarter, Little Italy, and Chinatown, before they moved elsewhere.

Between the 1920s and the 1950s, The Ward was slowly expropriated and demolished. The area now contains the Discovery District, City Hall, Eaton Centre, and College Park.

Kensington (1854)

  S College between Bathurst & Spadina

Early Jewish immigrants to Toronto were spread around the town like everyone else. By the late 19th century, a slum district called The Ward was a common destination for new immigrants to the city, including Jews. However, by the early 20th century, established immigrants were moving out of The Ward and into more specialized districts such as Chinatown and Little Italy. Many Jewish immigrants moved to Kensington.

The Kensington neighbourhood was developed starting around 1854, when the former Denison estate was subdivided. Many row houses were added in the late 19th century that still stand today. In the 20th century, some of the new Jewish residents began opening storefronts to their homes. Soon, the area became known as the Jewish Market.

By the mid-20th century, the Jewish population moved out of Kensington, and settled North along Bathurst Street. No longer a Jewish district, the area instead came to be known as Kensington Market. Following a recent revitalization, the neighbourhood has become a popular tourist attraction today.

Baby Point (1816)

  S St. Marks between Humber River & Jane

From about the 14th and 15th centuries, the (Iroquoian-speaking) Huron-Wendat Nation built multiple villages in the Toronto area. During the Beaver Wars in the mid-17th century, the Haudenosaunee, a confederacy from South of the lake, invaded the region. Armed by the British, they displaced and devastated the Huron-Wendat.

At this location, on a bluff overlooking the ancient Carrying-Place Trail by the Humber River, a village called Teiaiagon was then established. The village was jointly occupied by Seneca and Mohawk, 2 of the Haudenosaunee (aka Iroquois or Five Nation) confederacy's member nations. The village was 1 of only 2 Haudenosaunee settlements in Toronto (the other was in Rouge Park, in Scarborough) - they were used to secure fur trading routes.

By 1700, less than half a century after their invasion, the Haudenosaunee were in turn displaced by the (Ojibwe-speaking) Mississaugas of the Anishinaabe, and had abandoned the village. During the early 18th century, Fort Douville (Magasin Royal), the first French trading post in the area, was located here.

The Mississaugas sold the Toronto area lands to the British in 1787, as part of the Toronto Purchase agreement. James Baby (inspector general) purchased this site in 1816, and built a cottage (shown in the photo) on the estate. The Baby family owned the site until 1910, after which its new owner developed Baby Point into a residential neighbourhood.

Consumers' Gas Company - Station A (1855-1964)

Location (former):
  S Front between Princess & Trinity

The Consumers' Gas Company was Toronto's oldest public utility, established 1848. In 1855, the company began building a new gas works here. Starting in the mid-1880s the gas works was greatly expanded to occupy over two and a half city blocks. The plant produced gas from coal for heating, appliances, and industrial uses. The massive "Station A" complex can be seen on the top-left quadrant of the photo, including several round gas holding tanks.

After natural gas became available in the city in the 1950s, operations at Station A were halted. The property was sold in 1964 and demolished, except for 3 buildings (included on this map) on its West side. Consumers' Gas was acquired by Enbridge in 1994, and is now Enbridge Gas.

Consumers' Gas Company Building (1876)

  17-19 Toronto Street
  E Toronto between Adelaide & King

The Consumers' Gas Company originally built their headquarters here in 1852. A second building was added in 1876. The first building was later demolished to make way for an expansion of the second building, completed in 1899 (as shown in the photo).

The Consumers' Gas Company was a public utility powering Toronto's streetlights. It ran a massive gas works complex (included on this map) in the East side of the city. The company later expanded the complex to service homes and businesses. It moved out of the Consumers' Gas Company Building in 1977, and the building is now an event venue. Consumers' Gas is now Enbridge Gas.

Toronto Electric Light Company (1887-1926)

Location (former):
  SE corner of The Esplanade & Scott

The Toronto Electric Light Company (TELCO) was the first electric company in Toronto. This coal-based substation was built in 1887. The company got a big boost in the early 1890s when the Toronto Railway Company converted its streetcar service to electric.

The plant became obsolete after the city switched from coal to hydro-electric power in the early 1900s. It was partially demolished around 1926 as part of the waterfront development - the surrounding area, including the wharf the plant was built on was infilled. The rest of the site remained derelict until it was converted to a parking lot in the late 1950s. It is now occupied by the new railway viaduct and Gardiner Expressway.

TELCO was taken over by the provincial hydro-electric company, Hydro-Electric Power Commission (now Ontario Hydro).

Fun fact: TELCO was owned by Henry Pellatt, known for building Casa Loma. This company was one of several investments that made his fortune.

Elias Rogers Coal & Wood Co. yard (1890-1927)

Location (former):
  257-259 The Esplanade
  S The Esplanade between Princess & Parliament

Elias "King Coal" Rogers, owner of the country's leading coal supplier Elias Rogers Coal & Wood Co., had several properties in the city, including this wood and coal yard. The yard grounds were filled-in on former waterfront around 1890, and can be seen on the right side of the photo, behind the smoke stack.

Wharves and docks along the waterfront, including this yard, were infilled around 1927 to make way for the new raised railway viaduct that currently occupies the site.

Fun fact: Elias Rogers was the great-uncle of Ted Rogers, who founded the Rogers Communications media empire.

Union Station (1873-1927)

Location (former):
  7 Station Street
  N The Esplanade between Simcoe & York

This was Toronto's 2nd Union Station, replacing wooden structures on the same site in 1873. The railway station was the largest and busiest in Canada. It was right on the lakeshore when it was built, but expansion of the railway lands soon followed, infilling the shore.

Growing demand led to a major upgrade of the facility in the early 1890s. This included a new entrance to the station (included on this map) - the brick building with the tower that can be seen in the background on the right side of the photo.

The station was again under duress from increased traffic by the turn of the 20th century, and construction of a new Union Station began in 1915. In 1927, the station moved one block East to its current location, and the old station was demolished.

Union Station entrance (1895-1931)

Location (former):
  S Front between Simcoe & York

By the 1890s, the Grand Trunk and Canadian Pacific Railway companies were routing most of Toronto's rail traffic through this one station. Union Station was subsequently expanded with an additional shed, tracks, and an extravagant new entrance. The new entrance building was included on this map ahead of its completion in 1895.

The station was connected to the new entrance by an arcade over Station Street (the former entrance). The new headhouse building contained a palatial Grand Hall, railway offices, tower, and an arched entryway to the station on Front Street.

Alas, the upgrade did little to forestall the growing traffic demands. Union Station was replaced in 1927, and the entrance was demolished a few years later, in 1931. The site is now home to the TOR1 Data Centre.

City Hall Station (1867-1899)

Location (former):
  NW corner of The Esplanade & Jarvis

The Northern Railway opened its City Hall Station in 1867, next door to city hall at New Market House (included on this map). Northern Railway was later taken over by the Grand Trunk Railway in 1888.

Following the acquisition, the railway station was closed in 1893, and railway passenger traffic was rerouted through Union Station (included on this map). The station was demolished in 1899 to make way for the new St. Lawrence Market South building currently on the site.

Railway Lands (1857-1986)

Location (former):
  S Front between John & Simcoe

This railway yard on the Railway Lands, was built on infilled land (formerly water) starting in 1857. At the time of this map, Toronto's railways were dominated by the Grand Trunk Railway, and the Canadian Pacific Railway companies, who shared the Railway Lands, and this yard. The harbour to the South was later further infilled, and the Railway Lands, including this yard, were greatly expanded in the early 20th century.

The vast Railway Lands were gradually disused and dismantled starting in the 1960s. This yard was last used by the railway in 1986. It is now home to the CN Tower, Ripley's Aquarium, and Roundhouse Park. The park contains a reconstructed locomotive roundhouse from 1931 (itself replacing an older roundhouse from 1897) that now hosts the Toronto Railway Museum.

Canadian Pacific Railway - Parkdale Yard (1879-1990)

Location (former):
  E Dufferin between Queen & King

This railway yard was constructed around 1879 for the Credit Valley Railway. Parkdale Yard was built next to the company's first station in Toronto, Parkdale Station. The yard included a roundhouse (shown in the photo).

There were several competing railways in Toronto at the time. Credit Valley Railway was taken over by Canadian Pacific Railway in 1884. After multiple other consolidations, Canadian Pacific Railway became 1 of only 2 major railway companies (along with the Grand Trunk Railway, now Canadian National Railway) serving the city at the time of this map.

The Parkdale Yard became overloaded, and was moved to another yard starting in 1890, such that by the time of this map, it was already considered the "old" yard. The yard closed soon after and was demolished. It was then expanded and repurposed by 1910 with a completely different layout, and a new station. It went through several more rounds of repurposing before finally shutting down in 1990. The location is now mostly residential.

Northern Railway - Bathurst Yard (1853)

Location (former):
  S Front between Bathurst & Spadina

This railway yard was constructed starting in the early 1850s for the Ontario, Simcoe & Huron company, Toronto's first railway. The company later became Northern Railway. The machine and engine shop, located near the Northeast corner of the yard, is prominent in the photo.

Northern Railway was bought out in 1888 by the Grand Trunk Railway. After multiple other consolidations, Grand Trunk Railway became 1 of only 2 major railway companies (along with the Canadian Pacific Railway) serving the city at the time of this map. Grand Trunk Railway was in turn taken over by the Canadian National Railway in 1923.

In the early 20th century, the harbour to the South was infilled, and the Bathurst Yard was greatly expanded as part of the Railway Lands. It has since downsized significantly, but remains in use today.

The Grand Trunk Railway Freight Depot (1866-1952)

Location (former):
  NE corner of The Esplanade & Yonge

Constructed in 1866 as the Great Western Railway Station, it was converted to the Grand Trunk Railway Freight Depot in 1882, when the Great Western Railway was acquired by the Grand Trunk Railway. The station's former railway passenger traffic was instead handled by Union Station (included on this map).

The shed was later converted to a wholesale fruit market. The building burned down in 1952, and the site eventually became home to the O'Keefe Centre (now Meridian Hall).

Toronto Belt Line - Don Loop (1892)

The Toronto Belt Line was a commuter railway service that ran from 1892-1894. This map is dated from the very brief period in Toronto history during which the Belt Line was operational - look closely to see trains in action! This location is on the Don Loop, the larger of the Belt Line's 2 service routes.

The Toronto Belt Line Railway Company went bankrupt before service even began. The railway was then taken over by the Grand Trunk Railway, who ran it for 2 years before shutting down service, having never made a profit.

The Grand Trunk Railway also went bankrupt in 1923, and was taken over by the Canadian National Railway, who eventually came to own the Belt Line as well. Although several sections of the Belt Line were repurposed for other railway routes, much of the track remained abandoned for years. By the late 1980s, approximately 1/3 of the original Don Loop route had been sold to the city and was converted into the Beltline Trail.

Grand Trunk Railway - Domed Roundhouse (1857-189?)

Location (former):
  SE corner of Front & Spadina

A locomotive roundhouse is used for servicing and storing locomotives. This Grand Trunk Railway - Domed Roundhouse (visible on the right side of the photo) was built on the Railway Lands in 1857. Fully enclosed roundhouses like this one are unusual.

The roundhouse was demolished some time later in the 1890s. The CNR Spadina Roundhouse was later built at the same location.

Fun fact: It turns out that this wasn't the only domed structure built here: The SkyDome (now Rogers Centre) opened in 1989, and currently occupies the site.

The Queen Street Subway (188?)

  NE corner of Queen & Dufferin

By the 1870s, multiple railway lines had been built between Union Station and Parkdale Station (included on this map) and beyond, crossing the intersection of Queen & Dufferin at a level grade. This greatly slowed road traffic to and from the growing village of Parkdale.

The Queen Street "Subway" (underpass) was built in the mid-1880s to divert traffic on Queen Street below the railways. The underpass was reconstructed around 1897, to the form shown in the photo.

While this solved the issue for East-West traffic on Queen Street, it also created the Dufferin Jog - a detour in North-South traffic on Dufferin Street. At the time, Dufferin was not an important thoroughfare. The Dufferin Jog was finally fixed in 2010.

Toronto Railway - Frederick Stables (1888)

  165 Front Street East
  SE corner of Front & Frederick

This structure is the Frederick Street Stables, built in 1888.

The Toronto Street Railway, who originally owned the stables, was a horse-drawn streetcar service. It was taken over by the Toronto Railway Company in 1891. The new operator converted the horse-drawn service to electric trams, with the first electric car run launched from the Frederick stables in 1892.

By the time the conversion completed in 1894, the stables were made obsolete, and repurposed into an electric power plant, as shown in the photo. After central power utility became available in the early 20th century, the powerhouse generator was put into reserve, and eventually shut down, with the buildings converted to a warehouse. The former stables were later renovated, and are now home to the Young People's Theatre.

Toronto Railway - car shops (1882-1979)

Location (former):
  126-132 Front Street East
  NW corner of Front & Frederick

This car shop was built for the Toronto Street Railway in 1882. The horse-drawn service was taken over by the Toronto Railway Company electric service in 1891. The shops were accordingly converted from building and storing horse-drawn streetcars to building and repair of electric trams. Most of the company's new streetcars were built here.

The streetcar service was taken over by the TTC in the 1920s. The shops were moved to the Hillcrest Complex in 1924, and the facilities were rented out, as shown in the photo. The building was demolished in 1979, and the site is now condos.

Toronto Railway - George Stables (1881-1902)

Location (former):
  SW corner of Front & George

The George Street Stables were built for the Toronto Street Railway in 1881. The stables are the prominent long building on the bottom left of the photo.

The company owned several properties in this neighbourhood, such as the Car Shops (bottom right of the photo), Frederick Stables (included on this map), and George Stables. The Street Railway was the TTC of its time, using horse-drawn streetcars. In 1891, it was taken over by the Toronto Railway Company, who converted to electric trams around the time of this map. This service was in turn taken over by the TTC in the 1920s.

The stables burned down in 1902, after which the site was used as a storage yard. The location is now condos.

Shedden Company Stables

Location (former):
  396 King Street West
  NW corner of King & Peter

The Shedden Forwarding Company was a Montreal-based cartage service using horse-driven trucks. As automobiles replaced horses in the 1920s, Shedden eventually moved out of the stables, and they were demolished in the 1930s. The site of the former stables is now retail property.

Yonge Street Wharf (1841-1926)

Location (former):
  S The Esplanade between Yonge & Scott

This wharf started beside a soap and candle factory in 1841. The Freeland Wharf moved in the 1850s as the lakeshore was infilled, and gradually expanded in the 1860s to eventually become the Yonge Street Wharf, seen in the right side of the photo. It served as a general merchandise and passenger steamship dock.

The waterfront area including the wharf was infilled around 1926. The site is now occupied by the new railway viaduct and Gardiner Expressway.

Queen's Wharf Lighthouse (1861)

Location (moved):
  W Bathurst S of lakeshore

In the 19th century, Toronto Harbour featured a single navigable entrance on its Western side. Queen's Wharf, situated by this channel, was equipped with a lighthouse (included on this map) in 1838. This lighthouse was replaced in 1861 by a pair of White and Red Lighthouses.

The narrow Western Channel proved insufficient for larger ships, and a wider channel was dug further South. Called the Western Gap, the new entrance had its own range lights that made the lighthouses obsolete. They were deactivated in 1911.

While the White Lighthouse was demolished, the Red Lighthouse was moved to a nearby site on Fleet Street in 1929, West of its original location. The Queen's Wharf Lighthouse was restored in 1988, and still stands there today.

Polson Iron Works shipyard (1883-1927)

Location (former):
  S The Esplanade between Frederick & Sherbourne

Polson Iron Works was a major shipyard that started building ships in 1883. The yard later expanded, and was recruited for military manufacturing in World War I.

Global competition, silt in the harbour, and plans to infill the waterfront, eventually spelled the end for the company. Polson ceased operations following bankruptcy in 1919, and the yard was sold and abandoned.

Fun fact: Knapp's Roller Boat, an infamous failed design for a roller ship, was built at this shipyard in 1897. After its failed trials, it was moored near the yard, parts sold for scrap, and the rest buried, along with the shipyard, around 1927, when the area was infilled to make room for the new raised railway viaduct that currently occupies the site.

Bonus fact: The name survives today in Polson Street and Polson Pier, a complex in the Port Lands area of the Toronto Harbourfront.

Bathurst Street Wharf shipyards (1890-1917)

Location (former):
  S Front between Bathurst & Spadina

While a railroad wharf has existed here since the 1850s, it was not until 1890 that the John Doty Engine Works (included on this map) opened a shipyard at this location. The Doty Company had sold the shipyard by the time of this map. The Bathurst Street Wharf went on to host a variety of other shipyards until it was retired around 1917, when the waterfront area was infilled. A new wharf and shipyard were built further South, and remained in use until the end of WWII. The old wharf site is now Canoe Landing Park and associated facilities.

Aykroyd Brothers Boat Works (1880-1923)

Location (former):
  W York S of lakeshore

Henry Aykroyd moved his firm from Yonge Street to York Street in 1880. The company built small sailing boats. After his death, his sons continued the business as the Aykroyd Brothers Boat Works.

The business was forced to move in 1921 as the area was being infilled. They moved to Bathurst Street and continued operating until 1943. The boathouse was demolished soon after the move. The location is now an office building.

St. Lawrence Hall (1851)

  157 King Street East
  SW corner of King & Jarvis

Following the Cathedral Fire of 1849 that devastated the area, there was room to build anew here. In addition to St. Lawrence Market North (included on this map), St. Lawrence Hall was completed in 1851. The Market Block (now St. Lawrence Market) was the social hub of the city, and this hall was built as a major venue for meetings, performances, exhibitions, and the market itself.

The hall went into a slow decline in the 20th century due to competition from newer venues. It gradually fell into disrepair to the point of partial collapse. The hall was then restored in 1967, and continues to be used for its original purpose.

St. Lawrence Market North (1851)

  92 Front Street East
  NW corner of Front & Jarvis

Market Block, the city's oldest public market, opened on this site in 1803. A later market building here was damaged by the Cathedral Fire of 1849. In 1851, the 3rd incarnation of the St. Lawrence Market North building on this site was completed.

Along with the New Market House (now St. Lawrence Market South) and St. Lawrence Hall (included on this map), the 3 adjacent sites make up St. Lawrence Market.

The North building was again demolished in 1904 to make way for the next version. Currently, St. Lawrence Market North is in its 6th iteration, and still operating as a world-class public food market over 200 years after its establishment.

New Market House (1845)

  91 Front Street East
  SW corner of Front & Jarvis

Toronto's 2nd city hall opened at the New Market House building in 1845, replacing the temporary assembly hall in the Market Block at what became St. Lawrence Market North. The building also housed a police station, jail, and shops.

City hall moved again to its 3rd location that is now known as Old City Hall (included on this map) in 1899. The former premises were then renovated and expanded to what is now St. Lawrence Market South in 1902. This structure saw additional renovations in the 1970s, but the facade of the original building can still be seen in the exterior of the current market building today.

Gooderham & Worts – Distillery District (1832)

  S Mill between Parliament & Cherry

Gooderham & Worts established their business here in 1832. This was originally a grain mill, but soon expanded into a brewery, that became the company's primary focus. The business grew rapidly into a massive distillery complex that was the largest of its kind in Canada, and included the tallest chimney in the city.

In the early 20th century, the temperance movement adversely affected sales. The company was sold in 1923, and became part of Hiram Walker (now Pernod Ricard). The plant was closed by 1990.

The site is now the Distillery District, a pedestrian-only commercial district and historic site. It boasts North America's largest collection of Victorian-era architecture.

Gooderham & Worts - Grain Elevator (188?-1927)

Location (former):
  SE corner of Mill & Parliament

Built in the late 1880s, this Gooderham & Worts Grain Elevator replaced an earlier smaller wooden elevator in an adjacent site. At 8 stories tall, it was used to automatically unload and store massive volumes of grain for whisky production, from ships and rail cars, virtually eliminating manual labour.

The elevator was demolished around 1927 during the infilling of the harbour for the new raised railway viaduct that is currently at the location.

Gooderham Building (1892)

  49 Wellington Street East
  SW corner of Wellington & Church

The flatiron Gooderham Building replaced the earlier Coffin Block in 1892. It is unclear which of these buildings is depicted on this map - the Gooderham Building is taller and features a prominent cupola not shown on the map. The Gooderham Building served as the head office of Gooderham & Worts - founders of the Distillery District (included on this map).

The company headquarters moved from the distillery district to this building when it was built, and then moved back to the district in 1924, shortly after the company was sold. The building remained an office of Gooderham & Worts until 1952, and was sold a few years later. It has undergone some renovations since then, and continues to be used as an office building today.

Fun fact: The building is sometimes called the "Flatiron" due to its resemblance to the Flatiron Building in New York City. However, the building in Toronto is older by 10 years!

Toronto Brewing and Malting Co. (1862-1972)

Location (former):
  272-284 Simcoe Street
  NW corner of Dundas & Simcoe

This was originally the William Street Brewery, built around 1862 for John Aldwell. It was renamed the Toronto Brewing and Malting Co. by its new owners in 1874.

The company was later bought out multiple times, eventually by Canadian Breweries aka Carling O'Keefe, now part of Molson Coors. The plant continued to host a brewery throughout the consolidations, until it was finally torn down in the early 1970s. It is currently home to One Park Lane condominiums.

Don Brewery - Lager Building (1877)

  19R River Street
  NE corner of Queen & River

Now known as the Don Brewery, this factory was originally established in 1844 as the Don Bridge Brewery. The company renamed multiple times in its history, as it passed through several different owners. This included the Davies family, who came to own several properties along the Don River, such as nearby Dominion Brewery and Dominion Hotel, and later the Don Valley Brick Works (included on this map). In 1877, the Davies expanded the massive Don Brewery complex with a Lager Building.

The brewery was destroyed by fire in 1907, and shut down a few years later. Only the Lager Building survives. It was converted to condos in 2004 and is now the Malthouse Lofts.

Dominion Brewery (1878)

  468-478 Queen Street East
  NW corner of Queen & Sumach

The Dominion Brewery opened in 1878. It went through several owners before closing in 1936. The company merged into Canadian Breweries aka Carling O'Keefe, now part of Molson Coors. The South and West wings of the complex survive today. They were renovated in the late 1980s, and are now called Dominion Square.

Todmorden Mills (1795)

  67 Pottery Road
  N of Bloor E of Don River

A lumber mill was first set up here in 1795. The site later expanded to include grain mills, a brewery and distillery, and other buildings, and came to be known as Don Mills. In 1827, York Paper Mill was added to the complex - it was only the 2nd such mill in the province at the time. Much of the site was destroyed by fire in 1847. The Taylor family purchased the site in 1855, and renamed it Todmorden Mills. This was 1 of 3 mill complexes they owned along the Don River.

The operation was very successful under the Taylors. Machine-made paper and wood-pulp based paper making were pioneered here. The Taylors also went on to found the Don Valley Brick Works (included on this map).

The paper mill burned down in 1900, but was rebuilt, and ran until the 1920s. The site saw various uses since then, including a WWII prisoner of war camp. The mill complex was converted to a museum, opened in 1967, and restored. The former York Paper Mill, with its prominent chimney, is now The Papermill Theatre.

Fun fact: The Taylor family name lives on in Taylor-Massey Creek. Both the Taylors and the Masseys were wealthy families who owned large estates around the creek.

Royal Dominion Flour Mills (1866-1904)

Location (former):
  1 Bay Street
  NE corner of The Esplanade & Bay

The Royal Dominion Flour Mills plant was built around 1866 for Henry John Boulton (attorney general). M. McLaughlin & Co. purchased the flour mill in 1876 and expanded it multiple times.

The building was destroyed by the Great Fire of 1904 that devastated the area. The location is now occupied by CIBC Square.

Old Mill ruins (1850-2000)

Location (former):
  N Bloor W of Humber River

This was the site of York's (now Toronto) first sawmill - the King's Mill. A series of lumber, and later grist (grain), mills were built on this site. Several of them were destroyed by fire. The last of these was Gamble's Mill, built around 1850, on the location of the previously burned down mill. Alas, this mill too succumbed to fire in 1881, and the site was finally abandoned.

The Old Mill ruins remained a landmark in the area. Later, a restaurant (now hotel) called The Old Mill was established on the site, as well as Old Mill Bridge, Old Mill Road and Old Mill Drive, and eventually the entire neighbourhood came to be called Old Mill. The ruins were finally demolished in 2000 to make way for the hotel.

William Davies Company pork packing plant (1879-1932)

Location (former):
  521 Front Street East
  E Bayview between Front & Mill

One of Toronto's enduring nicknames is "Hogtown", largely attributed to the city's pork packing industry. The William Davies Company moved from their previous location at the Toronto Packing House (included on this map) into their new pork processing plant in 1879. This was the largest such facility in the British Empire, and the second largest on the continent at the time.

Toronto's meat industry also included the Western Cattle Market (included on this map), and later, the Toronto Abattoir and Stockyards.

The company was eventually merged into Canada Packers, who took over the site in 1927, and later into Maple Leaf Foods. Operations moved to the Stockyards by 1932, and the plant's facilities were gradually demolished over several decades. It is now the site of Corktown Common park.

Fun fact: William Davies is credited with introducing peameal bacon to Canada.

Western Cattle Market (1877-1913)

Location (former):
  SW corner of Wellington & Walnut

The Western Cattle Market opened in 1877. It replaced similar facilities in the East side of the city. Over the years, the industry expanded across the railway, a bridge (shown in the photo) was built to connect the sites, several abattoirs were constructed in the area, and also garbage incinerators.

The cattle market closed in 1913, before construction began on the Wellington Destructor incinerator (now derelict) on the site. By then, the industry had moved to the Stockyards at The Junction. The bridge is now replaced by the Garrison Crossing.

Confederation Life Building (1893)

  20 Richmond Street East
  NW corner of Richmond & Victoria

This was billed as the largest and tallest office building in the city when it opened in 1893. The Confederation Life Building became the new headquarters of the Toronto-based Confederation Life Insurance Company.

Confederation Life moved out of the building in 1955. The company is now dissolved following liquidation. The building was renovated and restored in the early 1980s, and is still in use as an office building today.

Canada Life Assurance Company (1888-1945)

Location (former):
  42-46 King Street West
  N King between Bay & Yonge

The Canada Life Assurance Company building replaced a previous branch office at the same location. It was a skyscraper when it was completed in 1888.

The company moved to the new Canada Life Building location on University Avenue in 1931. The former headquarters was eventually demolished around 1945 to make way for The Bank of Nova Scotia Building, now in Scotia Plaza, that currently occupies the site.

British America Assurance Company (1877-1932)

Location (former):
  22-24 Front Street East
  NW corner of Front & Scott

The British America Assurance Company was a Toronto-based fire and marine insurance provider. The company branched out throughout Canada, the US, and worldwide. They moved their headquarters to this building in 1877.

Thanks to its broad coverage, British America survived major calamities that bankrupted other companies, including the Great Fire of 1904 in Toronto, 1904 Great Baltimore Fire, and 1906 San Francisco earthquake. It was an early example of Toronto's prowess in the financial sector.

British America moved out of the building in 1923. The building was demolished around 1932, and converted to a parking lot. Today, the site is occupied by an office building. The company was bought out along with the Western Assurance Company (included on this map) in 1961, by the Royal Insurance Company (now RSA Insurance Group).

Temple Building (1896-1970)

Location (former):
  62-76 Richmond Street West
  NW corner of Richmond & Bay

To help future-proof this map, the authors included the City Hall building years ahead of its completion in 1899. However, by the time 1899 rolled around, City Hall would have been partially occluded by another building not yet completed at the time of this map. Thus, Toronto would have never actually looked like this!

The Temple Building was the world headquarters of the Independent Order of Foresters (IOF). At a whopping 12-stories, it was the tallest building in the British Empire when it was completed in 1896. It remained Toronto's tallest building until the 15-storey Traders Bank building (included on this map) was built in 1905. The building featured electric elevators, lights, chilled drinking water, cutting edge fireproofing, and a museum.

The IOF (now Foresters Financial) moved to their next headquarters in 1954. The Temple Building was demolished in 1970 to make way for the Queen-Bay Centre that is there now.

Fun fact: The Temple Building was commissioned by the head of the IOF at the time, Oronhyatekha (aka Peter Martin or Burning Cloud), a Mohawk from near Brantford, Ontario. He was also the first aboriginal scholar at Oxford, and one of the first native doctors in Canada. Doctor O Lane in Cabbagetown is named after him.

Bank of Upper Canada (1827)

  252 Adelaide Street East
  NE corner of Adelaide & George

The Bank of Upper Canada building was constructed in 1827 - when Toronto was still called York! It was the fledgling town's first bank building. The bank occupied the premises until its collapse in 1866.

Several additions were made to the building over the years, including extensions in the back, a new roof, and a 3rd floor. In the 1870s, the building was merged with its 2 adjacent neighbours (shown in the photo), the De La Salle College, and 4th General Post Office building (included on this map).

After a fire in 1978, the building was restored and reopened as commercial space. Along with its neighbours, the entire complex still stands today.

Bank of British North America (1874)

  49 Yonge Street
  NE corner of Wellington & Yonge

The first branch of this bank in Toronto was located here. It was replaced with this Bank of British North America branch building, opened 1874. Some alterations were made in 1903, with the main entrance moved as shown in the photo.

The Bank of British North America merged into the Bank of Montreal in 1918. The building continued to serve as a bank branch for many decades. It was restored in 1982, and remains a commercial office space today.

Home Savings and Loan Company (1850)

  80 Church Street
  W Church between Adelaide & Court

This unassuming building, constructed in 1850, is occluded on the map. But during the 19th century, it hosted the head offices of 2 major Toronto-based banks.

In 1856, the building became the first head office of the Bank of Toronto. The bank moved down the street (included on this map) in 1862. The Bank of Toronto later merged with the Dominion Bank to form TD Bank (now TD Canada Trust).

At the building, The Bank of Toronto was replaced by the head office of the Toronto Savings Bank. This bank was renamed Home Savings and Loan Company in the 1870s. In 1903, it renamed again to the Home Bank of Canada. The Home Bank expanded to over 80 branches and 60,000 customers. Then, long before the introduction of deposit insurance, the Home Bank collapsed in 1923.

The Home Savings and Loan Company building is still today a commercial office space.

Bank of Toronto (1862-1961)

Location (former):
  60 Wellington Street East
  NW corner of Wellington & Church

The Bank of Toronto was established in 1855. Its 1st headquarters was a small office space up the street (included on this map). The bank moved its head office to this location in 1862.

Over the decades, the Bank of Toronto grew at a conservative but steady pace. It moved out of this building and into its 3rd headquarters downtown in 1913, and continued to expand. In 1955, the Bank of Toronto merged with the Dominion Bank (included on this map) to become TD Bank. The current (4th) head office replaced the former on the same site in 1967. After another merger in 2000, TD Bank became TD Canada Trust.

The original Bank of Toronto building was demolished in 1961. The site currently hosts a small restaurant.

Fun fact: The Bank of Toronto was founded by William and George Gooderham, owners of the Gooderham & Worts Distillery District, and the Gooderham Building (included on this map) across the street.

Dominion Bank (1879)

  1 King Street West
  SW corner of King & Yonge

This building was completed in 1879, and was an early skyscraper in the city. The Dominion Bank moved its headquarters here from down the street. The bank grew at a conservative but steady pace.

In 1914, the Dominion Bank building was replaced by a 12-storey skyscraper that still stands today. The Dominion Bank merged with the Bank of Toronto (included on this map) in 1955 to become TD Bank (now TD Canada Trust). It moved to its current head office in 1967. The former headquarters is now a hotel.

Canadian Bank of Commerce (1890-1928)

Location (former):
  21-25 King Street West
  SW corner of King & Jordan

The Canadian Bank of Commerce building was the bank's head office from 1890, and was an early skyscraper in the city.

The original building was demolished in 1928 to make way for the new Commerce Court North building. The company later merged into CIBC who still uses the new building as its corporate headquarters.

Molsons Bank (1853-1946)

Location (former):
  48 King Street West
  NE corner of King & Bay

This was originally the Cawthra House, a mansion built for William Cawthra (city alderman), in 1853. In 1885, the building became a branch of Molsons Bank, a Montreal-based bank.

The bank moved out in 1907, and later merged into the Bank of Montreal. The building was demolished in 1946 to make way for The Bank of Nova Scotia Building, now in Scotia Plaza, that currently occupies the site.

Bank of Montreal (1887)

  30 Yonge Street
  NW corner of Front & Yonge

The Bank of Montreal opened its new Ontario head office building in 1887. It replaced a previous branch on the same site. The building is notable for its opulence, including a domed ceiling, and stained glass skylight.

The Bank of Montreal moved its headquarters to First Canadian Place in Toronto in 1977. This branch closed in 1982. Subsequently, the bank building was incorporated into BCE Place (now Brookfield Place). As of 1993, the building hosts the Hockey Hall of Fame.

Fun fact: Prior to the original Bank of Montreal branch that preceded the head office building, this site was the location of Toronto's 5th General Post Office building (1839-1845).

Traders Bank of Canada (1890)

  61-67 Yonge Street
  NE corner of Yonge & Colborne

The Traders Bank of Canada building was completed in 1890. The bank moved its head office into it from the previous location down the street. The original building can be seen sticking out of the middle of the row of buildings on the right of the photo.

In 1905, the Traders Bank Building was replaced by a 15-storey skyscraper - the tallest in the British Empire at the time - that still stands today. Traders Bank was acquired by the Royal Bank of Canada in 1912.

Christie Sand Pits

  N Bloor between Shaw & Christie

This is a part of the former Garrison Creek ravine that featured rich sand deposits. At the time of this map, this location hosted a sand and gravel quarry called the Christie Sand Pits.

By 1909, the quarry was exhausted, and the pit left behind was converted into Willowvale Park. This park was popular for swimming, tobogganing, skating, and baseball. In 1933, it was host to the Christie Pits Riot - the largest race riot in Canadian history - that started during a baseball game.

Today, the park's official name has reverted back to Christie Pits Park. This is inherited from the Christie Sand Pits, which in turn were named after the adjacent Christie Street. The street was named after a former land owner's wife, Christy McDougall (contrary to myth, this was long before William Christie, aka "Mr. Christie" cookies, had immigrated to Toronto, let alone set up his bakery).

Don Valley Brick Works (1889)

  550 Bayview Avenue
  N of Bloor W of Don River

The Taylor family owned nearby Todmorden Mills (included on this map), and accidentally discovered high quality clay on their property. The Don Valley Pressed Brick Company was then established in 1889. It quickly gained a reputation for producing prize-winning high-quality bricks. However, by 1901, the company was bankrupt. It was sold to a relative who renamed it the Don Valley Brick Works.

The new owner benefited greatly from the construction spree that followed the Great Fire of 1904. The large complex was sold, renamed, renovated, and modified multiple times throughout its history.

Brick production finally ceased in 1989, and the plant closed shortly thereafter. Now a historic site and park, the oldest building that survives on the grounds dates back to 1891.

Massey-Harris Company - Toronto Works (1879-2003)

Location (former):
  SW corner of King & Massey

The Massey Manufacturing Company was an agricultural equipment manufacturer producing some of the earliest farming automation machinery in the world. It moved from Newcastle to the Toronto Works plant in 1879.

This was a large factory complex, and many changes and additions were made to the plant as it sprawled over the years. The company merged into the Massey-Harris Company in 1891, becoming one of the largest manufacturers in its industry.

Massey-Harris later merged again, into Massey-Ferguson, and closed the plant in 1982. The buildings were demolished by 2003, except for the head office (included on this map). The rest of the site was converted into a residential area, and includes Massey-Harris Park.

Doty's Machine and Engine Works (1891-2011)

Location (former):
  25 Bathurst Street
  NE corner of Front & Bathurst

In 1891, Doty's Machine and Engine Works moved from the Northwest corner of Front & Bathurst (included on this map) to the Northeast corner. The plant manufactured ship engines, and was the largest of its kind in Canada.

Financial trouble hit the company soon after the move, and it was taken over by its creditors by the time of this map. The works continued to build ship engines until 1907, after which the structure was used by other industries. The building was demolished in 2011, to be replaced by condos.

John Abell Engine and Machine Works (1886-2007)

Location (former):
  48 Abell Street
  SW corner of Queen & Abell

In 1886, the John Abell Engine and Machine Works company moved from Woodbridge to this factory complex. The company manufactured primarily agriculture-related engines and machinery. At the time, the factory was the largest of its kind in Canada.

The company later merged into American-Abell Engine and Thresher Company, and again into The M. Rumely Company, who stopped building engines at the plant in 1914. Subsequently, the complex was used by a variety of manufacturers, and eventually converted into residential space. The buildings were demolished in 2007, to be replaced by condos.

John Inglis and Sons (1881-2004)

Location (former):
  14 Strachan Avenue
  SW corner of Wellington & Strachan

In 1881, John Inglis and Sons moved from Guelph to this site. The company manufactured grist and flour mill machinery. The plant was rebuilt and expanded in the early 1900s, as shown in the photos.

The Inglis company later moved from milling machinery to ship engines, military weapons, consumer products, and household appliances. The complex was gradually demolished in the 2000s, and converted to residential space. The Inglis brand of household appliances is now part of Whirlpool Canada.

Toronto Silver Plate Company (1882)

  570 King Street West
  N King between Portland & Brant

The Toronto Silver Plate Company was founded in 1882. It was the first in Canada to manufacture silver plated products.

The company was later bought out multiple times, and the name stopped being used. The factory went on to house multiple other businesses. The building was restored in 2014, and is now part of Fashion House.

Christie, Brown & Company (1874)

  200 King Street East
  SW corner of Adelaide & Frederick

With the help of his then business partner, William Christie formed the biscuit bakery Christie, Brown & Company. Mr. Christie moved his factory to this location in 1874, growing it to become the largest in Canada. He then bought out his partner's share, to become the sole owner of the biscuit manufacturing company.

The plant eventually expanded to take up the entire city block. The company was later acquired by Nabisco, who kept the well-known "Mr. Christie" brand of cookies. The factory complex was eventually sold off, and is currently home to George Brown College's St. James campus.

John B. Smith & Sons yard (1888)

  53 Strachan Avenue
  SE corner of Wellington & Strachan

The John B. Smith & Sons lumber company moved from Front & Bay (included on this map) to these premises in 1888. The complex included a planing mill building and a lumberyard.

John B. Smith was Toronto's lumber baron, and one of the largest lumber suppliers in the country. It remained a family business throughout its history. The company ceased operations in 1967.

The planing mill building was renovated in 1996, and is now Strachan House. The former lumberyard is now the Southern half of Stanley Park.

John B. Smith & Sons (1865-1904)

Location (former):
  9-43 Front Street West
  SE corner of Front & Bay

The John B. Smith & Sons lumber company moved into these premises in 1865, a few years after a previous mill and yard on Niagara Street were razed by a fire. The buildings can be seen on the left side of the photo. However, by the time of this map, operations had moved again to Wellington & Strachan (included on this map). The company retained ownership of the property, and leased it out to various wholesale stores and warehouses.

The buildings were then destroyed in the Great Fire of 1904 that devastated the area. As of 1935, the site is home to the Dominion Public Building.

Greey's Mill Furnishing Works (1882)

  70 The Esplanade
  NW corner of The Esplanade & Church

Greey's Mill Furnishing Works opened in 1882. This foundry manufactured machine parts for a variety of industries. By 1903, the factory complex was expanded multiple times, as shown in the photo. Today, the building serves as office space.

Cobban Manufacturing Company (1872-195?)

Location (former):
  47-61 Hayter Street
  SE corner of Hayter & Bay

This facility was built around 1872, and the Cobban Manufacturing Company moved in around 1881. The factory manufactured picture frames, glass products, cabinet work, and more.

Cobban moved again, to the lakeshore, shortly after this map was made, and became Phillips Manufacturing. The building hosted various other businesses until its demolition in the early 1950s. The entire East end of Hayter Street is now part of College Park.

E. & C. Gurney Stove Foundry (1872)

  500-522 King Street West
  NE corner of King & Brant

The Gurney brothers ran a Hamilton-based stove manufacturing firm - the largest in Canada. They expanded their business by opening this factory in Toronto in 1872. The E. & C. Gurney Stove Foundry manufactured stoves and castings. The plant was expanded over the years, with the West wing being added in 1887.

Gurney later merged into Tappan Stoves, now part of Electrolux. The foundry was renovated in modern times, adding an above-ground passageway between the 2 remaining buildings. It is currently a commercial space.

T. Eaton Company (1883)

  190 Yonge Street
  W Yonge between Dundas & Queen

Timothy Eaton moved his store from its original premises one block South, to its current location in 1883. The department store pioneered set price (no-haggling), cash only (no-credit), and satisfaction guarantee (money-back) policies, allowing the company to grow rapidly. The T. Eaton Company expanded multiple times, to eventually occupy several city blocks, and become Canada's largest retailer.

The Eaton Main Store and later additions were replaced by the Toronto Eaton Centre in 1977. The complex eliminated several pre-existing streets, to become the largest shopping mall in the city. The company went bankrupt in 1999, but the well-known mall bearing its name remains operational today.

Fun fact: The Toronto downtown PATH network holds a Guinness World Record for the largest contiguous indoor shopping space. The oldest segment of the PATH was built in 1900, between the Eaton Main Store (now Toronto Eaton Centre) and the Eaton Annex building (now Trinity Square). It is still in use today.

Bonus fact: Canada's first escalator was installed at the Eaton Main Store in 1904.

Robert Simpson Company (1894)

  176 Yonge Street
  SW corner of Queen & Yonge

This building, originally constructed in 1894, was not yet included on this map. Robert Simpson moved his store from its original premises one block North to this location. This was effectively a swap with rival Timothy Eaton, who moved in the opposite direction.

The new Simpson building burned down mere months after construction, taking part of neighbouring Knox Church (included on this map) with it. The store was promptly rebuilt in 1895, this time using a fire-proofed steel frame - the first of its kind in Canada.

The Robert Simpson Company was rebranded Simpson's, just as the Timothy Eaton Company rebranded to Eaton's. Much of the Simpson's history is in relation to its rival across the street. Both department stores thrived and expanded across Canada. However, while Eaton's ultimately went bankrupt, Simpson's was acquired by Hudson's Bay Company in 1978. On the other hand, the Simpsons brand was retired by 1991, while the Eaton brand is still commemorated by the Toronto Eaton Centre mall. The Simpson building is also still operating to this day, as Canada's largest department store, but known as The Bay.

Yonge Street Arcade (1884-1955)

Location (former):
  137 Yonge Street
  E Yonge between Richmond & Adelaide

This was Canada’s first indoor shopping mall, opened in 1884. The Yonge Street Arcade was a 4-storey gallery that stretched from Yonge to Victoria, and hosted 52 retail shops. Built at the city's retail centre, the mall successfully competed with Eaton's, Simpson's, and the Golden Lion (included on this map) department stores for several decades.

The arcade closed in 1954 and was demolished shortly thereafter. It was replaced in 1960 by the current Arcade Building.

Mammoth House (1847-1927)

Location (former):
  136-140 King Street East
  N King between Church & Jarvis

Thomas Thompson built the Mammoth House in 1847 to expand his retail business. The building had to be reconstructed just 2 years later, following the Cathedral Fire of 1849. Nonetheless, the business was quite successful, and passed on to his son, Thomas Thompson Jr.

T. Thompson & Son sold dry goods, such as clothing and footwear. This was an early department store in Toronto. The Mammoth House was one of several stores in the neighbourhood that used a large mascot statue of a creature on their storefront, such as the Golden Griffin, and Golden Lion (included on this map). The building was greatly expanded in the late 1880s into the prominent structure depicted on this map.

After decades of prosperity, the company moved out of the building by 1905, and closed shop altogether shortly after. The building was demolished around 1927, and the location is now part of St. James Park.

Golden Lion (1867-1901)

Location (former):
  33-37 King Street East
  S King between Victoria & Leader

Robert Walker moved his dry goods store here in 1848. It was renamed the Golden Lion shortly thereafter, and featured a statue of its mascot above the main entrance. In 1867, the store was replaced by a new building. The business, now Robert Walker & Sons, rivalled Eaton's and Simpson's department stores (included on this map).

The Golden Lion was expanded in 1892, but then closed in 1898. The building was demolished in 1901 to make way for the King Edward Hotel that is still there today.

Gordon Mackay and Company (1870-1973)

Location (former):
  48-50 Front Street West
  NW corner of Front & Bay

This warehouse was built for Gordon Mackay and Company in 1870. Gordon Mackay, originally from Hamilton, moved to Toronto in the 1850s, and were expanding. They were manufacturers and wholesalers of dry goods - primarily cotton clothing.

The building was destroyed by the Great Fire of 1904 that devastated the area. The company built a new warehouse on the same location that year, as shown in the photo. Gordon Mackay grew to a Canada-wide operation, and branched out to retail stores. The new warehouse was demolished in 1973 to make way for the Royal Bank Plaza that currently occupies the site.

The Mail Building (1881-1938)

Location (former):
  50-54 King Street West
  NW corner of King & Bay

The Mail Building replaced the former Toronto Mail newspaper headquarters at the same location in 1881. After a fire in 1884, it was topped with a spire and observation deck, making it the city's first skyscraper.

The Toronto Mail newspaper merged into The Mail and Empire in 1895, which in turn merged with The Globe (included on this map) in 1936 to form The Globe and Mail. The new company shortly moved out of the building. It was demolished in 1938 to be replaced with a Bank of Montreal building, and is now the site of the BMO headquarters at First Canadian Place.

Globe Building (1890-1938)

Location (former):
  64 Yonge Street
  SW corner of Melinda & Yonge

The Globe newspaper was established in Toronto by George Brown (premier) in 1844. In 1890, the paper moved from its original headquarters nearby, to this new building. However, in 1895, the building was destroyed by fire, and replaced in the form shown in the photo.

In 1936, The Globe merged with The Mail and Empire to form The Globe and Mail. The new company moved out of the building and it was shortly demolished. The location is now part of Commerce Court.

Eby, Blain & Co. Wholesale Grocers (187?-1967)

Location (former):
  21-23 Front Street East
  SE corner of Front & Scott

This warehouse was originally built in the early 1870s for Frank Smith & Co. Wholesale Grocers. Eby, Blain & Co., also wholesale grocers, moved in in 1891, from their previous location across the street.

The building continued to be used as a wholesale grocery warehouse until it was demolished around 1967 to make room for the St. Lawrence Centre for the Arts, that currently stands on the site.

Dominion Saw & Lead Works (1872-1975)

Location (former):
  265-283 King Street West
  S King between John & Simcoe

The Dominion Saw & Lead Works was built in 1872 for the James Robertson Company. This company manufactured various products, such as saws and plumbing fixtures.

In 1913, the company moved to the Robertson Building on Spadina, and the factory was rented out to other tenants. The plant was demolished in the mid-1970s. The former site of the works is now part of Metro Hall.

Langmuir Manufacturing Company (1874-1960)

Location (former):
  800-820 King Street West
  N King between Niagara & Tecumseth

This trunk and bag factory was built around 1874 for H. E. Clarke and Company. It was renamed the Langmuir Manufacturing Company in 1890. Langmuir specialized in luggage (travelling trunks and bags), and later became the largest trunk manufacturer in Canada. The plant underwent extensive restructuring and expansion at the end of the century.

The company closed down around 1960, and the factory was demolished. The location is now residential.

Toronto Safe Works (1868)

  145 Front Street East
  SW corner of Front & Frederick

This was originally the Toronto Packing House, built for the William Davies Company in 1868. William Davies later moved to a larger plant by the Don River (included on this map). The building was then taken over by J & J Taylor Manufacturers, who moved in from their previous plant in Corktown. J & J Taylor were makers of safes, and the factory became known as the Toronto Safe Works. The property was expanded multiple times over its history.

The Taylor Safe Company merged into Chubb Locks in 1960, and the Taylor name is no longer in use. The building continues to serve as a commercial property.

Toronto Carpet Factory (1892-1905)

Location (former):
  SW corner of The Esplanade & Jarvis

The Toronto Carpet Factory opened in 1892. The building can be seen in the middle of the photo near the bottom, on the North end of Beard's Wharf. This was a very successful manufacturer of carpets in Canada.

The company soon outgrew this factory and moved to its current location at King & Fraser in 1899. The original premises were demolished a few years later.

H.W. Petrie's Machine Depot (1891-1976)

Location (former):
  141-145 Front Street West
  S Front between Simcoe & York

H.W. Petrie & Co. moved its manufacturing operations to this Machine Depot from Brantford in 1891. Petrie was a manufacturer and dealer of new and used machinery.

In the early 20th century, Petrie took over the neighbouring Cyclorama building (included on this map) and converted it into a showroom, and later a parking garage. The domed Cyclorama can be seen beside the depot building in the right side of the photo. The company also abandoned manufacturing to focus exclusively on machine sales, outsourcing manufacturing to others. Petrie moved out of the building in 1948, and it was demolished in 1976 to make way for University Place (now Citigroup Place) that currently occupies the site.

Warwick Brothers & Rutter (1889-1904)

Location (former):
  68-70 Front Street West
  N Front between York & Bay

This building was constructed for Warwick & Sons around 1889. The company later changed their name to Warwick Brothers & Rutter. This was a wholesale printing company, specializing in stationary and postcards. They were at the forefront of colour printing in Canada, and were the Ontario Government printer.

The building was destroyed by the Great Fire of 1904 that devastated the area. The company built its new premises at King & Spadina. Their former location is now part of the Royal Bank Plaza.

Queen's Hotel (1855-1927)

Location (former):
  78-92 Front Street West
  N Front between York & Bay

The 4 townhouses of Ontario Terraces were erected in 1838, and were an early host of Knox College. When the college moved out around 1855, the houses were merged and converted into a hotel. The hotel was later expanded and renovated, and renamed the Queen's Hotel in 1862. This was arguably the city's most luxurious hotel, hosting several prominent guests over its lifetime. The hotel greatly benefited from its proximity to Union Station (included on this map).

After narrowly escaping the Great Fire of 1904, the Queen's Hotel was demolished in 1927 to make way for the Royal York Hotel that currently occupies the site.

Dingman's Hall (1892)

  106 Broadview Avenue
  NW corner of Queen & Broadview

The tallest building East of the Don River when it was built around 1892, Dingman's Hall was originally a commercial building. The hall included retail, office, meeting, and performance spaces.

In 1907, the hall was converted to a hotel, as shown in the photo. Now known as the Broadview Hotel, it has served in such capacity ever since.

Fun fact: For a period of its history, the building was a boarding house, with a strip club on the ground level, later known as the infamous Jilly's.

Arlington Hotel (1889-1937)

Location (former):
  326-338 King Street West
  NW corner of King & John

This hotel opened in 1889 as the Grand Pacific, and was later renamed Arlington Hotel.

Arlington briefly served as a veteran hostel after WWI. It closed in 1933, and was demolished by 1937. The site is now TIFF Lightbox.

Fun fact: The Arlington Hotel was built on the former site of Toronto's first hospital, York General Hospital (1829-1856), that later became Toronto General Hospital (included on this map).

Little York Hotel (1880)

  187 King Street East
  SE corner of King & George

This building opened as the Little York Hotel in 1880. The hotel's stables and coach house, built the same year at 65 George Street, abutting the Southern side of the inn, is also visible, though not prominent on this map.

The Little York Hotel served as an inn until the late 1920s. The stables were originally 1 storey; a 2nd storey was added recently, as seen in the photo. The buildings are now used for office space.

Fun fact: The Little York Hotel was built on the former site of Toronto's first public school, the Home District Grammar School (1807-1813), that eventually evolved into Jarvis Collegiate Institute (included on this map).

Black Horse Hotel (1820-1919)

Location (former):
  114-120 Front Street East
  NE corner of Front & George

This was originally a mansion built around 1820 for George Monro (mayor). It was converted to a tavern in the early 1840s, and later renamed the Black Horse Hotel. The building was renovated a few times over its history.

The Black Horse was torn down in 1919. The location is now a condominium complex.

Albion Hotel (1837-193?)

Location (former):
  37-41 Jarvis Street
  E Jarvis between King & Front

Established 1837, the Albion Hotel prided itself on its high-value offering. The hotel premises expanded and contracted over its history, and survived until around 1920. The building was demolished in the late 1930s, and the location is now condos.

Nealon House (1888)

  197 King Street East
  S King between George & Frederick

The Nealon House hotel was built in 1888. As the East side of the building was exposed for much of its history, it was often used for lavish painted wall advertisements, such as the Wrigley's Gum ad shown in the photo.

The building continued to serve as a hotel under different names, until around 1977.

Cherry Street Hotel (1859)

  425-441 Cherry Street
  SE corner of Front & Cherry

This building was originally the Palace Street School, opened 1859. The public school closed in 1887. After this, the building was expanded and converted into a hotel, at one point named the Cherry Street Hotel.

The hotel failed and closed by 1910. The building was later expanded again, and repurposed for industrial uses (as shown in the photo). From 1965-2007, it was taken over by the Canary Restaurant, who also rented out rooms. After so many varied tenants over the years, little remains of the original interior of the building. However, the facade has been restored.

The former hotel building is now part of Canary House condos. The area around it is known as the Canary District - after the restaurant. Palace Street School is the oldest surviving public school building in the city.

Dominion Hotel (1889)

  498 Queen Street East
  NW corner of Queen & Sumach

Robert T. Davies helped manage the Don Brewery (included on this map) nearby with his brothers, before branching out on his own to establish the Dominion Brewery. In 1889, he built the Domnion Hotel next door to it. Later, Davies also came to own the Don Valley Brick Works (included on this map), and became one of the wealthiest people in Toronto.

Some time in the mid-20th century, the hotel's 4th floor, roof, and tower were removed, leaving the building with a flat roof. The former hotel is now a restaurant and rooming house.

Walker House Hotel (1873-1976)

Location (former):
  121 Front Street West
  SW corner of Front & York

The Walker House Hotel opened in 1873 - the same year as neighbouring Union Station. The hotel benefited greatly from its proximity to the growing railway traffic, downtown commerce, and government buildings. It was expanded multiple times throughout its early history.

The Walker House survived until 1976, when it was demolished. It was replaced by the University Place (now Citigroup Place) office tower.

Palmer House Hotel (1871-1936)

Location (former):
  146-156 King Street West
  NW corner of King & York

Although currently home to office towers, the intersection of King & York has a long history of hotels. Originally built as the Mansion House around 1871, this building became the Palmer House hotel in the mid-1880s. It ran until around 1915, after which the building was used as a commercial property, and became known as the York Building. This was not the last hotel on the site however, as the short-lived Lord Simcoe Hotel was built here in 1956. The Sun Life Financial Tower (now Sun Life Centre) currently stands on the site.

Rossin House Hotel (1857-1969)

Location (former):
  91 York Street
  SE corner of King & York

The Rossin House Hotel originally opened in 1857. It was heavily damaged by fire in 1862, and restored and reopened by 1867. Rossin House was one of the city's most upscale hotels at the time.

The hotel was renamed the Prince George Hotel in 1909, and demolished in 1969. Now, the Standard Life Centre office tower occupies the site.

Black Bull Tavern (1886)

  298 Queen Street West
  NE corner of Queen & Soho

Originally built in the 1830s, the Black Bull Tavern was rebuilt in 1886 in its current form. It has been expanded and renovated multiple times since then. During much of the 20th century, the Black Bull was renamed Hotel Clifton (as shown in the photo), but has reverted since to its original name.

Palace Arms Hotel (1890)

  944-950 King Street West
  NE corner of King & Strachan

The Palace Arms Hotel opened in 1890, replacing a previous hotel on the site. It has served as a hotel, tavern, and rooming house ever since.

Woodbine Race Course (1874-1994)

Location (former):
  SW corner of Queen & Woodbine

The Woodbine Race Course first opened in 1874. This was a horse racing track. In 1881, the track's owner helped found the Ontario Jockey Club (now Woodbine Entertainment Group), at one point the largest horse racing operation in the province, holding all 3 races of the Canadian Triple Crown across its various tracks.

The current Woodbine Racetrack in Etobicoke was opened in 1956. The old race course was renovated and renamed Greenwood Raceway in 1963. It was finally closed down and demolished in 1994. The track was converted to Woodbine Park, and the facilities later replaced with Champions Greenwood - an off-track betting venue.

Sunlight Park (1886-1913)

Location (former):
  W Broadview between Queen & Eastern

Originally called Toronto Baseball Ground, this was Toronto's first baseball stadium. It hosted the Toronto Baseball Club - also known as the Toronto Canucks, or just the Torontos - an International League baseball team. The team won the championship pennant in 1887 at the park.

The field was renamed Sunlight Park after the Sunlight Soap Works factory was built across the street. In 1896, the club left the stadium for the new Hanlan's Point Stadium on the Toronto Islands, and the team was later renamed the Toronto Maple Leafs. The park hosted various other local leagues until it was closed in 1913. The area is now built up with condos and highway, but Sunlight Park Road and Baseball Place mark the former site.

Mutual Street Rink (1885-1989)

Location (former):
  78 Mutual Street
  W Mutual between Dundas & Shuter

In the 1870s, John Willoughby Crawford (lieutenant governor) hosted an outdoor ice rink on his land. In 1875, this formally became the Caledonian Rink, better known as the Mutual Street Rink, a curling and skating natural ice rink. In 1885, the rink was enclosed to become an indoor facility. The structure was considered Toronto's largest auditorium, and used as an event venue during the summer. When hockey was introduced to Toronto, the Caledonian Hockey Club was formed, and the rink first used for ice hockey. It soon became the city's primary facility for the new sport.

Hockey's popularity in Toronto quickly outgrew the rink. It was demolished in 1911 to be replaced with its 3rd incarnation: Arena Gardens - the largest indoor hockey arena in Canada at the time. A new professional hockey team played there, that later changed its name to the Toronto Maple Leafs. They moved to Maple Leaf Gardens in 1931, and Arena Gardens was renamed to Mutual Street Arena. The building was sold and demolished in 1989. The site is now Arena Gardens Park.

Argonaut Rowing Club (1880-1923)

Location (former):
  W York S of lakeshore

The Toronto Argonauts are better known today as a football team. However, the club started out (and is still today!) a rowing club. The Argonaut Rowing Clubhouse moved here from a smaller clubhouse in St. Lawrence Ward, but then it burned down, and was rebuilt in 1880.

Neighbouring docks hosted other aquatic clubs, including the Royal Canadian Yacht Club (included on this map), Toronto Canoe Club, and Queen City Yacht Club. Dredging in the area for eventual infilling of the harbour forced all the clubhouses to move elsewhere. The Argonauts were the last to move - to Parkdale - in 1921. The clubhouse was demolished soon after. The location is now an office building.

Royal Canadian Yacht Club (1869-1923)

Location (former):
  E Simcoe S of lakeshore

The Royal Canadian Yacht Club built their first clubhouse here in 1869. In 1881, the club moved to their current location at the Toronto Islands. However, some members of the group stayed behind, retaining the club's original name (Toronto Yacht Club) and clubhouse. The 2 clubs ended up amalgamating in 1889, and the old clubhouse continued to be used as a landing site for some time.

The original building was replaced in 1897, with the form shown in the photo. Dredging in the area for eventual infilling of the harbour forced the clubhouse to be abandoned. The building remained derelict for several years before being demolished around 1923.

Cyclorama (1887-1976)

Location (former):
  131 Front Street West
  S Front between Simcoe & York

A cyclorama was an interactive art exhibit space that showcased an immersive 360-degree panoramic image. The 16-sided Toronto Cyclorama first opened in 1887. The popular attraction featured props, special effects, and even live actors, for a more immersive experience.

The short-lived attraction was closed by 1900, shortly after the city's first movie theatres appeared. The building was then used as a showroom (as shown in the photo), and later converted to a parking garage. It was torn down in 1976 to make way for University Place (now Citigroup Place) that currently occupies the site.

Grand Opera House (1874-1927)

Location (former):
  11 Adelaide Street West
  S Adelaide between Bay & Yonge

The Grand Opera House was Toronto's premier concert hall when it first opened in 1874. It featured steam-heating, electric gaslights, folding seats, and a gas-lit chandelier. The building suffered a major fire in 1879.

After decades of success, competing theatres and a highly publicized scandal spelled the end for the venue. The building was demolished in 1927. The location is now part of Scotia Plaza - a tiny alley named Grand Opera Lane remains.

Massey Hall (1894)

  178 Victoria Street
  SW corner of Shuter & Victoria

Canada's oldest concert hall was originally called Massey Music Hall. It was included on this map ahead of its opening in 1894.

Later renamed just Massey Hall, this was the home of the Toronto Symphony Orchestra from 1923 to 1982, when they moved to Roy Thomson Hall. In fact, Roy Thompson Hall was called New Massey Hall before its completion.

The building underwent a significant renovation completed in 2022, and continues to serve its original function to this day.

Toronto Club (1889)

  107 Wellington Street West
  SE corner of Wellington & York

Established 1837, the Toronto Club is the oldest private club in Canada, and 3rd oldest in North America. The clubhouse opened in 1889.

The building was expanded in 1912, and restored in modern times.

Victoria Row (1842)

  85-97 King Street East
  S King between Leader & Church

Victoria Row was a strip mall built in 1842. It was renovated multiple times over its history. Since 1898, it has also been home to the Albany Club - a private social club.

Only one segment of the original structure remains today - it can be seen in the middle of the photo, with the 1930 Albany Clubhouse on the left. The rest of the original structure was demolished, but continues to serve as a retail space today as part of an office tower.

Beard Building (1895-1935)

Location (former):
  163 King Street East
  SE corner of King & Jarvis

The Beard Building was a 7-storey skyscraper designed to host a bank and hotel. Unfortunately, the lot was too narrow to be practical for such a tall building, and the hotel never materialized. The building was included on this map ahead of its opening in 1895, but its height is not exaggerated like other skyscrapers on the map - it barely seems taller than its neighbours, though it surely towered over them!

The eponymous landowner was George T. Beard (city councillor), son of Joshua George Beard (mayor). The family ran J.G. Beard and Sons - a stove foundry - as well as owning Beard's Wharf, Beard's Hotel, and many other properties. The building was demolished in 1935, and the location is now condos.

Daniel Brooke Building (1833)

  150-154 King Street East
  NE corner of King & Jarvis

The Daniel Brooke Building was constructed in 1833, later rebuilt, and then damaged in the Cathedral Fire of 1849. This was a commercial property.

In 1843, James Austin and a partner opened a grocery business in the building. This was his first business venture. Austin later went on to found the Dominion Bank (now TD Canada Trust), and helped found Consumers' Gas Company (included on this map). He also built Spadina House (indicated on this map), where he resided.

The building was renovated in 1988, and remains a commercial space. It is now integrated into the adjacent King George Square condominium tower.

Thomas Thompson Building (1833)

  185 King Street East
  SW corner of King & George

This building was constructed for George Monro (mayor) as the Imported British & India-Goods Wholesale Warehouse, around 1833. It was a dry goods store.

Around 1860, the building was taken over by the Thomas Thompson Company, who manufactured saddles and harnesses. A new roof was added to the building in 1880.

The company continued to reside in the premises until around 1907. The Thomas Thompson Building remains part of the oldest still-standing row of buildings in the city, seen on the left side of the photo.

Fun fact: Thomas Thompson was a city councillor during the time he moved into the building, and should not be confused with Thomas Thompson, a boot and shoe salesman who opened the Mammoth House (included on this map), nor Thomas Thompson, his son who took over the business after his father's death, nor Thomas Thompson, a former Toronto Parks commissioner and namesake of Tommy Thompson Park.

The Grange (1817)

  317 Dundas Street West
  S Dundas between Beverley & McCaul

This manor was built for D'Arcy Boulton Jr. (auditor-general) in 1817, on a large lot of land. The Grange was later inherited by his son William Henry Boulton (mayor).

The Grange is the oldest surviving brick house in the city. In 1910, it was bequeathed to the Art Museum of Toronto (now Art Gallery of Ontario). The remaining portion of the estate's original grounds became Grange Park.

Campbell House (1822)

Location (moved):
  300 Adelaide Street East
  NE corner of Adelaide & Frederick

The Campbell House was originally built for William Campbell (chief justice) in 1822.

In 1972, to save the structure from demolition by its owners, the house was moved to its present location at Queen & University. It was restored, and became a heritage house museum. The original location of the house is now part of George Brown College.

Spadina House (1866)

  285 Spadina Road
  NE corner of Austin Terrace & Spadina

William Warren Baldwin (MPP) built Spadina House in 1818. Though not depicted on this map, it would have been located around here. The house burned down 1835, and was rebuilt. In 1866, the property was sold to James Austin, who rebuilt the house again, in its current form.

Both Spadina House and Spadina Avenue were named after the escarpment that the house is built on - from the Ojibwe word "ishpadinaa", meaning "sudden rise". The neighbourhood on the escarpment was the wealthiest in Toronto around the time of this map. Austin was the founder of the Dominion Bank (now TD Canada Trust), and helped found Consumers' Gas Company (included on this map). Both Austin Terrace, and nearby Austin Crescent, were named after him.

The house was renovated multiple times over its history. It was finally donated to the city by the Austin family, and opened as a museum in 1984. It is now known as Spadina Museum. Spadina Museum's next-door neighbour is another mansion-turned-museum overlooking the city from atop the escarpment: Casa Loma.

Mackenzie House (1858)

  82 Bond Street
  W Bond between Dundas & Shuter

This house was built for William Lyon Mackenzie (mayor), who moved in in 1858. He died at the house in 1861, though his family continued to live there for some years.

While the neighbouring houses were demolished in 1936, this house was saved due to its historical significance. In the 1960s, it was restored and converted to the Mackenzie House museum.

Fun fact: William Lyon Mackenzie was the 1st mayor of Toronto (1834-1835), and grandfather of William Lyon Mackenzie King, 10th prime minister of Canada.

Quetton St. George house (1810-1901)

Location (former):
  204 King Street East
  NE corner of King & Frederick

Laurent Quetton was a French merchant fleeing the French Revolution. He arrived in England on St. George's day, and added the saint's name to his own in gratitude. Quetton St. George later moved to York (now Toronto), and became a merchant here in 1802. He built the very first brick house in the town: Quetton St. George house, completed 1810.

Quetton St. George returned to France in 1815. The house came to be owned by the Baldwin family, known for William Warren Baldwin (MPP), his son Robert Baldwin (premier, attorney general), and nephews Maurice Scollard Baldwin (bishop) and Robert Baldwin Sullivan (mayor), among others. The house was demolished around 1901, and replaced by the Adam Brothers Harness Manufacturing Company Building that still stands there today.

Fun fact: St. George Street was named by William Warren Baldwin after Quetton St. George, and subsequently inherited by the subway station and University of Toronto campus.